Next Article in Journal
Unobtrusive Photoplethysmographic Monitoring Under the Foot Sole while in a Standing Posture
Next Article in Special Issue
Improving the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Performance of Silver Nanodendritic Substrates with Sprayed-On Graphene-Based Coatings
Previous Article in Journal
Green Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks: Energy Aware Link Efficient Routing Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of Chloroalkanes by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in Microfluidic Chips
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3238; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103238

Development of a Gas-Tight Microfluidic System for Raman Sensing of Single Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Under Normoxic/Hypoxic Conditions

1
Excellence-Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System (ECCPS), Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
2
Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden
3
CMS, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 24 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3050 KB, uploaded 26 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Acute hypoxia changes the redox-state of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). This might influence the activity of redox-sensitive voltage-gated K+-channels (Kv-channels) whose inhibition initiates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). However, the molecular mechanism of how hypoxia—or the subsequent change in the cellular redox-state—inhibits Kv-channels remains elusive. For this purpose, a new multifunctional gas-tight microfluidic system was developed enabling simultaneous single-cell Raman spectroscopic studies (to sense the redox-state under normoxic/hypoxic conditions) and patch-clamp experiments (to study the Kv-channel activity). The performance of the system was tested by optically recording the O2-content and taking Raman spectra on murine PASMCs under normoxic/hypoxic conditions or in the presence of H2O2. Oxygen sensing showed that hypoxic levels in the gas-tight microfluidic system were achieved faster, more stable and significantly lower compared to a conventional open system (1.6 ± 0.2%, respectively 6.7 ± 0.7%, n = 6, p < 0.001). Raman spectra revealed that the redistribution of biomarkers (cytochromes, FeS, myoglobin and NADH) under hypoxic/normoxic conditions were improved in the gas-tight microfluidic system (p-values from 0.00% to 16.30%) compared to the open system (p-value from 0.01% to 98.42%). In conclusion, the new redox sensor holds promise for future experiments that may elucidate the role of Kv-channels during HPV. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; microfluidic system; Raman spectroscopy; redox reactions on single cell level hypoxia; microfluidic system; Raman spectroscopy; redox reactions on single cell level
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Knoepp, F.; Wahl, J.; Andersson, A.; Borg, J.; Weissmann, N.; Ramser, K. Development of a Gas-Tight Microfluidic System for Raman Sensing of Single Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells Under Normoxic/Hypoxic Conditions. Sensors 2018, 18, 3238.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top