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The Application of Whole Cell-Based Biosensors for Use in Environmental Analysis and in Medical Diagnostics
Open AccessArticle

Amperometric Microsensors Monitoring Glutamate-Evoked In Situ Responses of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide from Live Human Neuroblastoma Cells

by Yejin Ha 1,†, Chaejeong Heo 2,†, Juhyun Woo 2,3, Hyunwoo Ryu 2,3, Youngmi Lee 1,* and And Minah Suh 2,3,4,*
1
Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
2
Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon 16419, Korea
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
4
Samsung Advanced Institute of Health Science and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 16419, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors are equally contributed to this work.
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071661
Received: 17 June 2017 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Cell-Based Biosensors and Application)
In the brain, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are important signaling gases which have multifaceted roles, such as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and vasodilators. Even though it is difficult to measure NO and CO in a living system due to their high diffusibility and extremely low release levels, electrochemical sensors are promising tools to measure in vivo and in vitro NO and CO gases. In this paper, using amperometric dual and septuple NO/CO microsensors, real-time NO and CO changes evoked by glutamate were monitored simultaneously for human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. In cultures, the cells were differentiated and matured into functional neurons by retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. When glutamate was administrated to the cells, both NO and CO increases and subsequent decreases returning to the basal levels were observed with a dual NO/CO microsensor. In order to facilitate sensor’s measurement, a flower-type septuple NO/CO microsensor was newly developed and confirmed in terms of the sensitivity and selectivity. The septuple microsensor was employed for the measurements of NO and CO changes as a function of distances from the position of glutamate injection. Our sensor measurements revealed that only functionally differentiated cells responded to glutamate and released NO and CO. View Full-Text
Keywords: amperometric sensor; nitric oxide; carbon monoxide; neuroblastoma cells; glutamate stimulation amperometric sensor; nitric oxide; carbon monoxide; neuroblastoma cells; glutamate stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, Y.; Heo, C.; Woo, J.; Ryu, H.; Lee, Y.; Suh, A.M. Amperometric Microsensors Monitoring Glutamate-Evoked In Situ Responses of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide from Live Human Neuroblastoma Cells. Sensors 2017, 17, 1661.

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