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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1348;

Rapid Waterborne Pathogen Detection with Mobile Electronics

VOR, Inc., San Diego 92122, CA, USA
Center for Advances in Water & Air Quality, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Louis Marty
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Toxic and Pathogen Detection)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2019 KB, uploaded 16 June 2017]   |  


Pathogen detection in water samples, without complex and time consuming procedures such as fluorescent-labeling or culture-based incubation, is essential to public safety. We propose an immunoagglutination-based protocol together with the microfluidic device to quantify pathogen levels directly from water samples. Utilizing ubiquitous complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) imagers from mobile electronics, a low-cost and one-step reaction detection protocol is developed to enable field detection for waterborne pathogens. 10 mL of pathogen-containing water samples was processed using the developed protocol including filtration enrichment, immune-reaction detection and imaging processing. The limit of detection of 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells/10 mL has been demonstrated within 10 min of turnaround time. The protocol can readily be integrated into a mobile electronics such as smartphones for rapid and reproducible field detection of waterborne pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: field testing; pathogen identification detection; mobile electronics; fluorescent-free labeling; waterborne field testing; pathogen identification detection; mobile electronics; fluorescent-free labeling; waterborne

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wu, T.-F.; Chen, Y.-C.; Wang, W.-C.; Kucknoor, A.S.; Lin, C.-J.; Lo, Y.-H.; Yao, C.-W.; Lian, I. Rapid Waterborne Pathogen Detection with Mobile Electronics. Sensors 2017, 17, 1348.

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