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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 240;

Geometric Positioning for Satellite Imagery without Ground Control Points by Exploiting Repeated Observation

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Hadal Science and Technology, Research Center for Ocean Mapping and Applications, College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) DATA61, Western Australia 6014, Australia
School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
China Center for Resources Satellite Data and Application, Beijing 100094, China
Current address: No. 999 Huchenghuan Road, Pudong District, Shanghai 201306, China.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason K. Levy
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
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With the development of space technology and the performance of remote sensors, high-resolution satellites are continuously launched by countries around the world. Due to high efficiency, large coverage and not being limited by the spatial regulation, satellite imagery becomes one of the important means to acquire geospatial information. This paper explores geometric processing using satellite imagery without ground control points (GCPs). The outcome of spatial triangulation is introduced for geo-positioning as repeated observation. Results from combining block adjustment with non-oriented new images indicate the feasibility of geometric positioning with the repeated observation. GCPs are a must when high accuracy is demanded in conventional block adjustment; the accuracy of direct georeferencing with repeated observation without GCPs is superior to conventional forward intersection and even approximate to conventional block adjustment with GCPs. The conclusion is drawn that taking the existing oriented imagery as repeated observation enhances the effective utilization of previous spatial triangulation achievement, which makes the breakthrough for repeated observation to improve accuracy by increasing the base-height ratio and redundant observation. Georeferencing tests using data from multiple sensors and platforms with the repeated observation will be carried out in the follow-up research. View Full-Text
Keywords: geometric positioning; satellite images; repeated observation; new images; without GCPs geometric positioning; satellite images; repeated observation; new images; without GCPs

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Ma, Z.; Wu, X.; Yan, L.; Xu, Z. Geometric Positioning for Satellite Imagery without Ground Control Points by Exploiting Repeated Observation. Sensors 2017, 17, 240.

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