Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Electrical Impedance Matching on the Electromechanical Characteristics of Sandwiched Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers
Next Article in Special Issue
HPT: A High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Sensor for Microsatellite Remote Sensing
Previous Article in Journal
Fatigue Damage Evaluation of Short Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Based on Phase Information of Thermoelastic Temperature Change
Previous Article in Special Issue
Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2829;

A “Skylight” Simulator for HWIL Simulation of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

School of Instrumentation Science & Opto-electronics Engineering, Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beihang University, Ministry of Education, 37# Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multispectral and Hyperspectral Instrumentation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5452 KB, uploaded 6 December 2017]   |  


Even though digital simulation technology has been widely used in the last two decades, hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation is still an indispensable method for spectral uncertainty research of ground targets. However, previous facilities mainly focus on the simulation of panchromatic imaging. Therefore, neither the spectral nor the spatial performance is enough for hyperspectral simulation. To improve the accuracy of illumination simulation, a new dome-like skylight simulator is designed and developed to fit the spatial distribution and spectral characteristics of a real skylight for the wavelength from 350 nm to 2500 nm. The simulator’s performance was tested using a spectroradiometer with different accessories. The spatial uniformity is greater than 0.91. The spectral mismatch decreases to 1/243 of the spectral mismatch of the Imagery Simulation Facility (ISF). The spatial distribution of radiance can be adjusted, and the accuracy of the adjustment is greater than 0.895. The ability of the skylight simulator is also demonstrated by comparing radiometric quantities measured in the skylight simulator with those in a real skylight in Beijing. View Full-Text
Keywords: HWIL; simulation; skylight; mineral mapping; sensor test; spectral measurement; remote sensing experiment HWIL; simulation; skylight; mineral mapping; sensor test; spectral measurement; remote sensing experiment

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, H.; Cui, B.; Jia, G.; Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X. A “Skylight” Simulator for HWIL Simulation of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing. Sensors 2017, 17, 2829.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top