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Sensors 2016, 16(2), 180;

A Personal, Distributed Exposimeter: Procedure for Design, Calibration, Validation, and Application

Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, Gaston Crommenlaan 8, Ghent B-9050, Belgium
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel 4051, Switzerland
University of Basel, Basel 4051, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sally Seidel
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 1 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2699 KB, uploaded 1 February 2016]   |  


This paper describes, for the first time, the procedure for the full design, calibration, uncertainty analysis, and practical application of a personal, distributed exposimeter (PDE) for the detection of personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) downlink (DL) band around 900 MHz (GSM 900 DL). The PDE is a sensor that consists of several body-worn antennas. The on-body location of these antennas is investigated using numerical simulations and calibration measurements in an anechoic chamber. The calibration measurements and the simulations result in a design (or on-body setup) of the PDE. This is used for validation measurements and indoor radio frequency (RF) exposure measurements in Ghent, Belgium. The main achievements of this paper are: first, the demonstration, using both measurements and simulations, that a PDE consisting of multiple on-body textile antennas will have a lower measurement uncertainty for personal RF exposure than existing on-body sensors; second, a validation of the PDE, which proves that the device correctly estimates the incident power densities; and third, a demonstration of the usability of the PDE for real exposure assessment measurements. To this aim, the validated PDE is used for indoor measurements in a residential building in Ghent, Belgium, which yield an average incident power density of 0.018 mW/m². View Full-Text
Keywords: radio frequency sensor; personal exposure assessment radio frequency sensor; personal exposure assessment

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Thielens, A.; Vanveerdeghem, P.; Van Torre, P.; Gängler, S.; Röösli, M.; Rogier, H.; Martens, L.; Joseph, W. A Personal, Distributed Exposimeter: Procedure for Design, Calibration, Validation, and Application. Sensors 2016, 16, 180.

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