Next Article in Journal
Segmentation of White Blood Cells through Nucleus Mark Watershed Operations and Mean Shift Clustering
Previous Article in Journal
Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22547-22560;

Aptameric Recognition-Modulated Electroactivity of Poly(4-Styrenesolfonic Acid)-Doped Polyaniline Films for Single-Shot Detection of Tetrodotoxin

SensorLab, Chemistry Department, University of the Western Cape, P. Bag X17, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Star
Received: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1533 KB, uploaded 8 September 2015]   |  


The work being reported is the first electrochemical sensor for tetrodotoxin (TTX). It was developed on a glassy carbon electrodes (C) that was modified with poly(4-styrenesolfonic acid)-doped polyaniline film (PANI/PSSA). An amine-end functionalized TTX-binding aptamer, 5′-NH2-AAAAATTTCACACGGGTGCCTCGGCTGTCC-3′ (NH2-Apt), was grafted via covalent glutaraldehyde (glu) cross-linking. The resulting aptasensor (C//PANI+/PSSA-glu-NH2-Apt) was interrogated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in sodium acetate buffer (NaOAc, pH 4.8) before and after 30 min incubation in standard TTX solutions. Both CV and EIS results confirmed that the binding of the analyte to the immobilized aptamer modulated the electrochemical properties of the sensor: particularly the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of the PANI+/PSSA film, which served as a signal reporter. Based on the Rct calibration curve of the TTX aptasensor, the values of the dynamic linear range (DLR), sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor were determined to be 0.23–1.07 ng·mL−1 TTX, 134.88 ± 11.42 Ω·ng·mL−1 and 0.199 ng·mL−1, respectively. Further studies are being planned to improve the DLR as well as to evaluate selectivity and matrix effects in real samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin sensor; aptamer; polyaniline; puffer fish tetrodotoxin sensor; aptamer; polyaniline; puffer fish

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fomo, G.; Waryo, T.T.; Sunday, C.E.; Baleg, A.A.; Baker, P.G.; Iwuoha, E.I. Aptameric Recognition-Modulated Electroactivity of Poly(4-Styrenesolfonic Acid)-Doped Polyaniline Films for Single-Shot Detection of Tetrodotoxin. Sensors 2015, 15, 22547-22560.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top