Next Article in Journal
Formaldehyde Gas Sensors: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2013, 13(4), 4450-4467;

SAR Image Simulation in the Time Domain for Moving Ocean Surfaces

Department of Ocean Technology, Policy and Environment, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [741 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


This paper presents a fundamental simulation method to generate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images for moving ocean surfaces. We have designed the simulation based on motion induced modulations and Bragg scattering, which are important features of ocean SAR images. The time domain simulation is able to obtain time series of microwave backscattering modulated by the orbital motions of ocean waves. Physical optics approximation is applied to calculate microwave backscattering. The computational grids are smaller than transmit microwave to demonstrate accurate interaction between electromagnetic waves and ocean surface waves. In this paper, as foundations for SAR image simulation of moving ocean surfaces, the simulation is carried out for some targets and ocean waves. The SAR images of stationary and moving targets are simulated to confirm SAR signal processing and motion induced modulation. Furthermore, the azimuth signals from the regular wave traveling to the azimuth direction also show the azimuthal shifts due to the orbital motions. In addition, incident angle dependence is simulated for irregular wind waves to compare with Bragg scattering theory. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theory. These results show that the simulation is applicable for generating numerical SAR images of moving ocean surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: SAR; time domain simulation; ocean; remote sensing SAR; time domain simulation; ocean; remote sensing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yoshida, T.; Rheem, C.-K. SAR Image Simulation in the Time Domain for Moving Ocean Surfaces. Sensors 2013, 13, 4450-4467.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top