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PANI and Graphene/PANI Nanocomposite Films — Comparative Toluene Gas Sensing Behavior

MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500757, Korea
Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2013, 13(12), 16611-16624;
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
PDF [837 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


The present work discusses and compares the toluene sensing behavior of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite (C-PANI) films. The graphene–PANI ratio in the nanocomposite polymer film is optimized at 1:2. For this, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent is used to prepare PANI-NMP solution as well as graphene-PANI-NMP solution. The films are later annealed at 230 °C, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested for their sensing behavior towards toluene. The sensing behaviors of the films are analyzed at different temperatures (30, 50 and 100 °C) for 100 ppm toluene in air. The nanocomposite C-PANI films have exhibited better overall toluene sensing behavior in terms of sensor response, response and recovery time as well as repeatability. Although the sensor response of PANI (12.6 at 30 °C, 38.4 at 100 °C) is comparatively higher than that of C-PANI (8.4 at 30 °C, 35.5 at 100 °C), response and recovery time of PANI and C-PANI varies with operating temperature. C-PANI at 50 °C seems to have better toluene sensing behavior in terms of response time and recovery time. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; PANI; nanocomposite polymer; toluene; sensing graphene; PANI; nanocomposite polymer; toluene; sensing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parmar, M.; Balamurugan, C.; Lee, D.-W. PANI and Graphene/PANI Nanocomposite Films — Comparative Toluene Gas Sensing Behavior. Sensors 2013, 13, 16611-16624.

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