Next Article in Journal
Piezoelectric Bimorph Cantilever for Vibration-Producing-Hydrogen
Next Article in Special Issue
A Flexible Sensor Technology for the Distributed Measurement of Interaction Pressure
Previous Article in Journal
Seeding and Harvest: A Framework for Unsupervised Feature Selection Problems
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Exploitation of Data from Remote and Human Sensors for Environment Monitoring in the SMAT Project
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 334-366;

Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

Fondazione G.B. Bietti IRCCS, Via Livenza 3, 00198 Rome, Italy
Applied Optics Group, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
CNR-IPCF Unit of Support of Cosenza, c/o University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci Cubo 31/C,87036 Rende, Italy
Vision Engineering, Via Adda 7, 00198 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy 2012)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3410 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014]


Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive optical systems; optical sensors; biomedical imaging techniques; eye adaptive optical systems; optical sensors; biomedical imaging techniques; eye
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lombardo, M.; Serrao, S.; Devaney, N.; Parravano, M.; Lombardo, G. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging. Sensors 2013, 13, 334-366.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top