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Diversity 2018, 10(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020033

Unveiling the History of a Peculiar Weevil-Plant Interaction in South America: A Phylogeographic Approach to Hydnorobius hydnorae (Belidae) Associated with Prosopanche americana (Aristolochiaceae)

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA
2
Laboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva y Biología Floral, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, CONICET, FCEFyN, Córdoba X5016GCA, Argentina
3
Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de Zonas Áridas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, C.C. 507, Mendoza 5500, Argentina
4
Present address: Laboratorio de Salud Pública, Ministerio de Salud, Desarrollo Social y Deportes de la Provincia de Mendoza, Talcahuano 2194, Godoy Cruz, Mendoza 5501, Argentina
5
División Entomología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICET, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Equal contributions.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 6 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Abstract

Interspecific interactions take place over both long and short time-frames. However, it is not completely understood if the interacting-partners persisted, migrated, or expanded in concert with Quaternary climate and landscape changes. We aim to understand whether there is concordance between the specialist weevil Hydnorobius hydnorae and its parasitic host plant, Prosopanche americana in space and time. We aim to determine whether Prosopanche had already established its range, and Hydnorobius later actively colonized this rare resource; or, if both host plant and herbivore expanded their range concomitantly. We performed population genetic, phylogeographic and Bayesian diffusion analysis of Cytochrome B sequences from 18 weevil localities and used paleodistribution models to infer host plant dispersal patterns. We found strong but uneven population structure across the range for H. hydnorae with weak signals of population growth, and haplotype network structure and SAMOVA groupings closely following biogeographic region boundaries. The ancestral areas for both Hydnorobius and Prosopanche are reconstructed in San Luis province within the Chaco Biogeographic province. Our results indicate a long trajectory of host-tracking through space and time, where the weevil has expanded its geographic range following its host plant, without significant demographic growth. We explore the past environmental changes that could underlie the boundaries between locality groups. We suggest that geographic dispersal without population growth in Hydnorobius could be enabled by the scarcity of the host plant itself, allowing for slow expansion rates and stable populations, with no need for significant demographic growth pulses to support range expansion. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatio-temporal diffusion; specialist weevils; parasitic plants; co-dispersal through space and time; stable populations spatio-temporal diffusion; specialist weevils; parasitic plants; co-dispersal through space and time; stable populations
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Sequeira, A.S.; Rocamundi, N.; Ferrer, M.S.; Baranzelli, M.C.; Marvaldi, A.E. Unveiling the History of a Peculiar Weevil-Plant Interaction in South America: A Phylogeographic Approach to Hydnorobius hydnorae (Belidae) Associated with Prosopanche americana (Aristolochiaceae). Diversity 2018, 10, 33.

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