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Article

Graphene Oxide Framework Structures and Coatings: Impact on Cell Adhesion and Pre-Vascularization Processes for Bone Grafts

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Experimental Trauma Surgery, Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, 24105 Kiel, Germany
2
Functional Nanomaterials, Institute for Materials Science, Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel, Germany
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Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, 24105 Kiel, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Koroush Kabir
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(6), 3379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063379
Received: 15 February 2022 / Revised: 4 March 2022 / Accepted: 17 March 2022 / Published: 21 March 2022
Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising material for bone tissue engineering, but the validation of its molecular biological effects, especially in the context of clinically applied materials, is still limited. In this study, we compare the effects of graphene oxide framework structures (F-GO) and reduced graphene oxide-based framework structures (F-rGO) as scaffold material with a special focus on vascularization associated processes and mechanisms in the bone. Highly porous networks of zinc oxide tetrapods serving as sacrificial templates were used to create F-GO and F-rGO with porosities >99% consisting of hollow interconnected microtubes. Framework materials were seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and the cell response was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) quantification, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) to define their impact on cellular adhesion, osteogenic differentiation, and secretion of vascular growth factors. F-GO based scaffolds improved adhesion and growth of MSC as indicated by CLSM and DNA quantification. Further, F-GO showed a better vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binding capacity and improved cell growth as well as the formation of microvascular capillary-like structures in co-cultures with outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC). These results clearly favored non-reduced graphene oxide in the form of F-GO for bone regeneration applications. To study GO in the context of a clinically used implant material, we coated a commercially available xenograft (Bio-Oss® block) with GO and compared the growth of MSC in monoculture and in coculture with OEC to the native scaffold. We observed a significantly improved growth of MSC and formation of prevascular structures on coated Bio-Oss®, again associated with a higher VEGF binding capacity. We conclude that graphene oxide coating of this clinically used, but highly debiologized bone graft improves MSC cell adhesion and vascularization. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone grafts; graphene oxide; vascularization; mesenchymal stem cells; VEGF bone grafts; graphene oxide; vascularization; mesenchymal stem cells; VEGF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, F.; Saure, L.M.; Schütt, F.; Lorich, F.; Rasch, F.; Nia, A.S.; Feng, X.; Seekamp, A.; Klüter, T.; Naujokat, H.; Adelung, R.; Fuchs, S. Graphene Oxide Framework Structures and Coatings: Impact on Cell Adhesion and Pre-Vascularization Processes for Bone Grafts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 3379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063379

AMA Style

Wang F, Saure LM, Schütt F, Lorich F, Rasch F, Nia AS, Feng X, Seekamp A, Klüter T, Naujokat H, Adelung R, Fuchs S. Graphene Oxide Framework Structures and Coatings: Impact on Cell Adhesion and Pre-Vascularization Processes for Bone Grafts. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(6):3379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063379

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Fanlu, Lena M. Saure, Fabian Schütt, Felix Lorich, Florian Rasch, Ali S. Nia, Xinliang Feng, Andreas Seekamp, Tim Klüter, Hendrik Naujokat, Rainer Adelung, and Sabine Fuchs. 2022. "Graphene Oxide Framework Structures and Coatings: Impact on Cell Adhesion and Pre-Vascularization Processes for Bone Grafts" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23, no. 6: 3379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063379

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