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Article

Seasonal Regulation of Metabolism: The Effect of Wintertime Fasting and Autumnal Fattening on Key Central Regulators of Metabolism and the Metabolic Profile of the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides)

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Research Unit of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
2
Kolling Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia
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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute for Computational Biomedicine, Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA
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Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, Department of Pathology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
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Medical Research Center Oulu, P.O Box 8000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
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Department of Pathology, Oulu University Hospital, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
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Institute of Pediatrics, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, 60-572 Poznań, Poland
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Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Erik Johnson
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094965
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 24 April 2021 / Accepted: 24 April 2021 / Published: 7 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuropeptides, Receptors, and Behavior)
Investigations into the mechanisms regulating obesity are frantic and novel translational approaches are needed. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species representing a promising model to study metabolic regulation in a species undergoing cycles of seasonal obesity and fasting. To understand the molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation in seasonal adaptation, we analyzed key central nervous system and peripheral signals regulating food intake and metabolism from raccoon dogs after autumnal fattening and winter fasting. Expressions of neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin-2 receptor (OX2R), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and leptin receptor (ObRb) were analyzed as examples of orexigenic and anorexigenic signals using qRT-PCR from raccoon dog hypothalamus samples. Plasma metabolic profiles were measured with 1H NMR-spectroscopy and LC-MS. Circulating hormones and cytokines were determined with canine specific antibody assays. Surprisingly, NPY and POMC were not affected by the winter fasting nor autumn fattening and the metabolic profiles showed a remarkable equilibrium, indicating conserved homeostasis. However, OX2R and ObRb expression changes suggested seasonal regulation. Circulating cytokine levels were not increased, demonstrating that the autumn fattening did not induce subacute inflammation. Thus, the raccoon dog developed seasonal regulatory mechanisms to accommodate the autumnal fattening and prolonged fasting making the species unique in coping with the extreme environmental challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: winter sleep; orexigenic neuropeptides; anorexigenic neuropeptides; food intake; metabolome; fasting winter sleep; orexigenic neuropeptides; anorexigenic neuropeptides; food intake; metabolome; fasting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Niiranen, L.; Mäkelä, K.A.; Dona, A.; Krumsiek, J.; Karhu, T.; Mäkinen, M.J.; Thalmann, O.; Saarela, S.; Herzig, K.-H. Seasonal Regulation of Metabolism: The Effect of Wintertime Fasting and Autumnal Fattening on Key Central Regulators of Metabolism and the Metabolic Profile of the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4965. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094965

AMA Style

Niiranen L, Mäkelä KA, Dona A, Krumsiek J, Karhu T, Mäkinen MJ, Thalmann O, Saarela S, Herzig K-H. Seasonal Regulation of Metabolism: The Effect of Wintertime Fasting and Autumnal Fattening on Key Central Regulators of Metabolism and the Metabolic Profile of the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4965. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094965

Chicago/Turabian Style

Niiranen, Laura, Kari A. Mäkelä, Anthony Dona, Jan Krumsiek, Toni Karhu, Markus J. Mäkinen, Olaf Thalmann, Seppo Saarela, and Karl-Heinz Herzig. 2021. "Seasonal Regulation of Metabolism: The Effect of Wintertime Fasting and Autumnal Fattening on Key Central Regulators of Metabolism and the Metabolic Profile of the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes Procyonoides)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4965. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094965

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