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Article

Calcite as a Precursor of Hydroxyapatite in the Early Biomineralization of Differentiating Human Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

1
Mistral Beamline, ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Cerdanyola del Valles, 08290 Barcelona, Spain
2
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
3
National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, 00136 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “Luigi Sacco”, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20157 Milan, Italy
5
Chemical Center S.r.l, Granarolo dell’ Emilia, 40057 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Riko Nishimura
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094939
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 27 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 6 May 2021
Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms generate organized mineral crystals. In human cells, this phenomenon culminates with the formation of hydroxyapatite, which is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite. The mechanism that explains the genesis within the cell and the propagation of the mineral in the extracellular matrix still remains largely unexplained, and its characterization is highly controversial, especially in humans. In fact, up to now, biomineralization core knowledge has been provided by investigations on the advanced phases of this process. In this study, we characterize the contents of calcium depositions in human bone mesenchymal stem cells exposed to an osteogenic cocktail for 4 and 10 days using synchrotron-based cryo-soft-X-ray tomography and cryo-XANES microscopy. The reported results suggest crystalline calcite as a precursor of hydroxyapatite depositions within the cells in the biomineralization process. In particular, both calcite and hydroxyapatite were detected within the cell during the early phase of osteogenic differentiation. This striking finding may redefine most of the biomineralization models published so far, taking into account that they have been formulated using murine samples while studies in human cell lines are still scarce. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteoblastic differentiation; biomineralization; bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; cryo-XANES osteoblastic differentiation; biomineralization; bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; cryo-XANES
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sorrentino, A.; Malucelli, E.; Rossi, F.; Cappadone, C.; Farruggia, G.; Moscheni, C.; Perez-Berna, A.J.; Conesa, J.J.; Colletti, C.; Roveri, N.; Pereiro, E.; Iotti, S. Calcite as a Precursor of Hydroxyapatite in the Early Biomineralization of Differentiating Human Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 4939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094939

AMA Style

Sorrentino A, Malucelli E, Rossi F, Cappadone C, Farruggia G, Moscheni C, Perez-Berna AJ, Conesa JJ, Colletti C, Roveri N, Pereiro E, Iotti S. Calcite as a Precursor of Hydroxyapatite in the Early Biomineralization of Differentiating Human Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(9):4939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094939

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sorrentino, Andrea, Emil Malucelli, Francesca Rossi, Concettina Cappadone, Giovanna Farruggia, Claudia Moscheni, Ana J. Perez-Berna, Jose J. Conesa, Chiara Colletti, Norberto Roveri, Eva Pereiro, and Stefano Iotti. 2021. "Calcite as a Precursor of Hydroxyapatite in the Early Biomineralization of Differentiating Human Bone-Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 9: 4939. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094939

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