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Extracellular Vesicles and Their Role in the Spatial and Temporal Expansion of Tumor–Immune Interactions

1
University Cancer Center Schleswig-Holstein (UCCSH), University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 24015 Kiel, Germany
2
Institute for Hematopathology, Fangdieckstr. 75, 22547 Hamburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Spittler
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073374
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 25 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Inflammation)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve as trafficking vehicles and intercellular communication tools. Their cargo molecules directly reflect characteristics of their parental cell. This includes information on cell identity and specific cellular conditions, ranging from normal to pathological states. In cancer, the content of EVs derived from tumor cells is altered and can induce oncogenic reprogramming of target cells. As a result, tumor-derived EVs compromise antitumor immunity and promote cancer progression and spreading. However, this pro-oncogenic phenotype is constantly being challenged by EVs derived from the local tumor microenvironment and from remote sources. Here, we summarize the role of EVs in the tumor–immune cross-talk that includes, but is not limited to, immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. We discuss the potential of remotely released EVs from the microbiome and during physical activity to shape the tumor–immune cross-talk, directly or indirectly, and confer antitumor activity. We further discuss the role of proinflammatory EVs in the temporal development of the tumor–immune interactions and their potential use for cancer diagnostics. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicle; tumor–immune microenvironment; microbiome; physical activity; tumor evolution; innate immune responses; PD-L1; liquid biopsy; diagnostics extracellular vesicle; tumor–immune microenvironment; microbiome; physical activity; tumor evolution; innate immune responses; PD-L1; liquid biopsy; diagnostics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lipinski, S.; Tiemann, K. Extracellular Vesicles and Their Role in the Spatial and Temporal Expansion of Tumor–Immune Interactions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 3374. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073374

AMA Style

Lipinski S, Tiemann K. Extracellular Vesicles and Their Role in the Spatial and Temporal Expansion of Tumor–Immune Interactions. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(7):3374. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073374

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lipinski, Simone; Tiemann, Katharina. 2021. "Extracellular Vesicles and Their Role in the Spatial and Temporal Expansion of Tumor–Immune Interactions" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 7: 3374. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073374

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