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Potential Therapeutic Applications of Hydrogen in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Possible Inhibiting Role on Mitochondrial Stress

1
Department of Research and Development, MiZ Company Limited, 2-19-15 Ofuna, Kamakura, Kanagawa 247-0056, Japan
2
Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg #3140, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140, USA
3
Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, 5322 Endo, Fujisawa 252-0882, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara Franceschelli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052549
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Role of Oxidative Stress in Inflammatory Diseases)
Mitochondria are the largest source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are intracellular organelles that produce large amounts of the most potent hydroxyl radical (·OH). Molecular hydrogen (H2) can selectively eliminate ·OH generated inside of the mitochondria. Inflammation is induced by the release of proinflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages and neutrophils. However, an uncontrolled or exaggerated response often occurs, resulting in severe inflammation that can lead to acute or chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have reported that ROS activate NLRP3 inflammasomes, and that this stimulation triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines. It has been shown in literature that H2 can be based on the mechanisms that inhibit mitochondrial ROS. However, the ability for H2 to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation via mitochondrial oxidation is poorly understood. In this review, we hypothesize a possible mechanism by which H2 inhibits mitochondrial oxidation. Medical applications of H2 may solve the problem of many chronic inflammation-based diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen; chronic inflammatory disease; medical application; hydroxyl radical; reactive oxygen species; NLRP3; COVID-19 hydrogen; chronic inflammatory disease; medical application; hydroxyl radical; reactive oxygen species; NLRP3; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hirano, S.-i.; Ichikawa, Y.; Sato, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Takefuji, Y.; Satoh, F. Potential Therapeutic Applications of Hydrogen in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Possible Inhibiting Role on Mitochondrial Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2549. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052549

AMA Style

Hirano S-i, Ichikawa Y, Sato B, Yamamoto H, Takefuji Y, Satoh F. Potential Therapeutic Applications of Hydrogen in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Possible Inhibiting Role on Mitochondrial Stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(5):2549. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052549

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hirano, Shin-ichi; Ichikawa, Yusuke; Sato, Bunpei; Yamamoto, Haru; Takefuji, Yoshiyasu; Satoh, Fumitake. 2021. "Potential Therapeutic Applications of Hydrogen in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Possible Inhibiting Role on Mitochondrial Stress" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 5: 2549. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052549

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