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Article

Extraordinary Multi-Organismal Interactions Involving Bacteriophages, Bacteria, Fungi, and Rotifers: Quadruple Microbial Trophic Network in Water Droplets

1
Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
2
Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Gronostajowa 7a, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
3
Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
4
Laboratory of Phage Therapy, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk, Poland
5
Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ricardo Aroca and Raffaella Maria Balestrini
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042178
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophage—Molecular Studies 2.0)
Our observations of predatory fungi trapping rotifers in activated sludge and laboratory culture allowed us to discover a complicated trophic network that includes predatory fungi armed with bacteria and bacteriophages and the rotifers they prey on. Such a network seems to be common in various habitats, although it remains mostly unknown due to its microscopic size. In this study, we isolated and identified fungi and bacteria from activated sludge. We also noticed abundant, virus-like particles in the environment. The fungus developed absorptive hyphae within the prey. The bacteria showed the ability to enter and exit from the hyphae (e.g., from the traps into the caught prey). Our observations indicate that the bacteria and the fungus share nutrients obtained from the rotifer. To narrow the range of bacterial strains isolated from the mycelium, the effects of bacteria supernatants and lysed bacteria were studied. Bacteria isolated from the fungus were capable of immobilizing the rotifer. The strongest negative effect on rotifer mobility was shown by a mixture of Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The involvement of bacteriophages in rotifer hunting was demonstrated based on molecular analyses and was discussed. The described case seems to be an extraordinary quadruple microbiological puzzle that has not been described and is still far from being understood. View Full-Text
Keywords: rotifers; predatory fungi; bacteria; bacteriophages; extraordinary trophic network rotifers; predatory fungi; bacteria; bacteriophages; extraordinary trophic network
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MDPI and ACS Style

Turnau, K.; Fiałkowska, E.; Ważny, R.; Rozpądek, P.; Tylko, G.; Bloch, S.; Nejman-Faleńczyk, B.; Grabski, M.; Węgrzyn, A.; Węgrzyn, G. Extraordinary Multi-Organismal Interactions Involving Bacteriophages, Bacteria, Fungi, and Rotifers: Quadruple Microbial Trophic Network in Water Droplets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2178. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042178

AMA Style

Turnau K, Fiałkowska E, Ważny R, Rozpądek P, Tylko G, Bloch S, Nejman-Faleńczyk B, Grabski M, Węgrzyn A, Węgrzyn G. Extraordinary Multi-Organismal Interactions Involving Bacteriophages, Bacteria, Fungi, and Rotifers: Quadruple Microbial Trophic Network in Water Droplets. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2178. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042178

Chicago/Turabian Style

Turnau, Katarzyna, Edyta Fiałkowska, Rafał Ważny, Piotr Rozpądek, Grzegorz Tylko, Sylwia Bloch, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk, Michał Grabski, Alicja Węgrzyn, and Grzegorz Węgrzyn. 2021. "Extraordinary Multi-Organismal Interactions Involving Bacteriophages, Bacteria, Fungi, and Rotifers: Quadruple Microbial Trophic Network in Water Droplets" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 4: 2178. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042178

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