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Molecular Alterations in Pancreatic Cancer: Transfer to the Clinic

1
Pathology Department, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, (Spain), Av. Córdoba, s/n, 28041 Madrid, Spain
2
Molecular Oncology Group, Biosanitary Research Institute, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, Francisco de Vitoria University (UFV), Pozuelo de Alarcón, 28223 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enza Lonardo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042077
Received: 23 January 2021 / Revised: 16 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pancreatic Cancer: From Molecular Basis to Therapy)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most common cancer of the exocrine pancreas and probably the tumor that has benefited the least from clinical progress in the last three decades. A consensus has been reached regarding the histologic classification of the ductal preneoplastic lesions (pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasia—PanIN) and the molecular alterations associated with them. Mutations in KRAS and inactivation of CDKN2A, SMAD4 and TP53 are among the most prevalent alterations. Next generation sequencing studies are providing a broad picture of the enormous heterogeneity in this tumor type, describing new mutations less prevalent. These studies have also allowed the characterization of different subtypes with prognostic value. However, all this knowledge has not been translated into a clinical progress. Effective preventive and early diagnostic strategies are essential to improve the survival rates. The main challenge is, indeed, to identify new effective drugs. Despite many years of research and its limited success, gemcitabine is still the first line treatment of PDA. New drug combinations and new concepts to improve drug delivery into the tumor, as well as the development of preclinical predictive assays, are being explored and provide optimism and prospects for better therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecular alterations; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; molecular markers; therapy molecular alterations; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; molecular markers; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez Gil, Y.; Jiménez Sánchez, P.; Muñoz Velasco, R.; García García, A.; Sánchez-Arévalo Lobo, V.J. Molecular Alterations in Pancreatic Cancer: Transfer to the Clinic. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 2077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042077

AMA Style

Rodríguez Gil Y, Jiménez Sánchez P, Muñoz Velasco R, García García A, Sánchez-Arévalo Lobo VJ. Molecular Alterations in Pancreatic Cancer: Transfer to the Clinic. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(4):2077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042077

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez Gil, Yolanda; Jiménez Sánchez, Paula; Muñoz Velasco, Raúl; García García, Ana; Sánchez-Arévalo Lobo, Víctor J. 2021. "Molecular Alterations in Pancreatic Cancer: Transfer to the Clinic" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 4: 2077. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042077

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