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Review

Some Molecular and Cellular Stress Mechanisms Associated with Neurodegenerative Diseases and Atherosclerosis

1
Laboratory of Angiopathology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 125315 Moscow, Russia
2
Laboratory of Medical Genetics, National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, 121552 Moscow, Russia
3
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathology of Cardiovascular System, Research Institute of Human Morphology, 117418 Moscow, Russia
4
Department of Commodity Science and Expertise, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, 125993 Moscow, Russia
5
Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Centre, 143024 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020699
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 29 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Genotoxicity)
Chronic stress is a combination of nonspecific adaptive reactions of the body to the influence of various adverse stress factors which disrupt its homeostasis, and it is also a corresponding state of the organism’s nervous system (or the body in general). We hypothesized that chronic stress may be one of the causes occurence of several molecular and cellular types of stress. We analyzed literary sources and considered most of these types of stress in our review article. We examined genes and mutations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and also molecular variants which lead to various types of stress. The end result of chronic stress can be metabolic disturbance in humans and animals, leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, energy deficiency in cells (due to a decrease in ATP synthesis) and mitochondrial dysfunction. These changes can last for the lifetime and lead to severe pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. The analysis of literature allowed us to conclude that under the influence of chronic stress, metabolism in the human body can be disrupted, mutations of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome and dysfunction of cells and their compartments can occur. As a result of these processes, oxidative, genotoxic, and cellular stress can occur. Therefore, chronic stress can be one of the causes forthe occurrence and development of neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. In particular, chronic stress can play a large role in the occurrence and development of oxidative, genotoxic, and cellular types of stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic stress; oxidative stress; genotoxic stress; cellular stress; mutation; gene; mitochondrial genome; nuclear genome chronic stress; oxidative stress; genotoxic stress; cellular stress; mutation; gene; mitochondrial genome; nuclear genome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sazonova, M.A.; Sinyov, V.V.; Ryzhkova, A.I.; Sazonova, M.D.; Kirichenko, T.V.; Khotina, V.A.; Khasanova, Z.B.; Doroschuk, N.A.; Karagodin, V.P.; Orekhov, A.N.; Sobenin, I.A. Some Molecular and Cellular Stress Mechanisms Associated with Neurodegenerative Diseases and Atherosclerosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 699. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020699

AMA Style

Sazonova MA, Sinyov VV, Ryzhkova AI, Sazonova MD, Kirichenko TV, Khotina VA, Khasanova ZB, Doroschuk NA, Karagodin VP, Orekhov AN, Sobenin IA. Some Molecular and Cellular Stress Mechanisms Associated with Neurodegenerative Diseases and Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):699. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020699

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sazonova, Margarita A., Vasily V. Sinyov, Anastasia I. Ryzhkova, Marina D. Sazonova, Tatiana V. Kirichenko, Victoria A. Khotina, Zukhra B. Khasanova, Natalya A. Doroschuk, Vasily P. Karagodin, Alexander N. Orekhov, and Igor A. Sobenin. 2021. "Some Molecular and Cellular Stress Mechanisms Associated with Neurodegenerative Diseases and Atherosclerosis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 699. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020699

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