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Oral Semaglutide, the First Ingestible Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist: Could It Be a Magic Bullet for Type 2 Diabetes?

by 1,2 and 1,2,*
1
Asan Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea
2
Asan Diabetes Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bunzo Matsuura
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 9936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189936
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 12 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Hormone: From Molecular Mechanism to Clinical Aspects 2021)
The gastrointestinal tract secretes gut hormones in response to food consumption, and some of these stimulate insulin secretion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin peptide hormone released from the lower digestive tract that stimulates insulin secretion, suppresses glucagon secretion, and decreases hunger. GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) mimics the action of endogenous GLP-1, consequently reversing hyperglycemia and causing weight reduction, demonstrating its efficacy as an antidiabetic and antiobesity agent. Previously restricted to injection only, the invention of the absorption enhancer sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate resulted in the development of oral semaglutide, the first ingestible GLP-1RA. Oral semaglutide demonstrated its efficacy in glycemic management and body weight loss with a low risk of hypoglycemia as a monotherapy and in combination with other hypoglycemic medications in its clinical trial programs named Peptide Innovation for Early Diabetes Treatment. Consistent with other injectable GLP-1RAs, gastrointestinal side effects were often reported. Additionally, cardiovascular safety was established by demonstrating that oral semaglutide was not inferior to a placebo in terms of cardiovascular outcomes. Thus, oral semaglutide represents a novel treatment option that is particularly well-suited for patients with type 2 diabetes and/or obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: semaglutide; GLP-1 receptor; type 2 diabetes; obesity semaglutide; GLP-1 receptor; type 2 diabetes; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.S.; Jung, C.H. Oral Semaglutide, the First Ingestible Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist: Could It Be a Magic Bullet for Type 2 Diabetes? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189936

AMA Style

Kim HS, Jung CH. Oral Semaglutide, the First Ingestible Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist: Could It Be a Magic Bullet for Type 2 Diabetes? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):9936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189936

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Hwi S., and Chang H. Jung 2021. "Oral Semaglutide, the First Ingestible Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist: Could It Be a Magic Bullet for Type 2 Diabetes?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 9936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189936

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