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Article

Low Ozone Concentrations Differentially Affect the Structural and Functional Features of Non-Activated and Activated Fibroblasts In Vitro

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Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Anatomy and Histology Section, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, I-37134 Verona, Italy
2
San Rocco Clinic, Via Monsignor G.V. Moreni 95, I-25018 Montichari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wojciech Bal
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(18), 10133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221810133
Received: 29 August 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 17 September 2021 / Published: 20 September 2021
Oxygen–ozone (O2–O3) therapy is increasingly applied as a complementary/adjuvant treatment for several diseases; however, the biological mechanisms accounting for the efficacy of low O3 concentrations need further investigations to understand the possibly multiple effects on the different cell types. In this work, we focused our attention on fibroblasts as ubiquitous connective cells playing roles in the body architecture, in the homeostasis of tissue-resident cells, and in many physiological and pathological processes. Using an established human fibroblast cell line as an in vitro model, we adopted a multimodal approach to explore a panel of cell structural and functional features, combining light and electron microscopy, Western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and multiplex assays for cytokines. The administration of O2–O3 gas mixtures induced multiple effects on fibroblasts, depending on their activation state: in non-activated fibroblasts, O3 stimulated proliferation, formation of cell surface protrusions, antioxidant response, and IL-6 and TGF-β1 secretion, while in LPS-activated fibroblasts, O3 stimulated only antioxidant response and cytokines secretion. Therefore, the low O3 concentrations used in this study induced activation-like responses in non-activated fibroblasts, whereas in already activated fibroblasts, the cell protective capability was potentiated. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxygen–ozone therapy; cell proliferation; cell surface protrusions; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) gene; interleukin-6; transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1; fluorescence microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) oxygen–ozone therapy; cell proliferation; cell surface protrusions; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) gene; interleukin-6; transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1; fluorescence microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cisterna, B.; Costanzo, M.; Lacavalla, M.A.; Galiè, M.; Angelini, O.; Tabaracci, G.; Malatesta, M. Low Ozone Concentrations Differentially Affect the Structural and Functional Features of Non-Activated and Activated Fibroblasts In Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 10133. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221810133

AMA Style

Cisterna B, Costanzo M, Lacavalla MA, Galiè M, Angelini O, Tabaracci G, Malatesta M. Low Ozone Concentrations Differentially Affect the Structural and Functional Features of Non-Activated and Activated Fibroblasts In Vitro. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(18):10133. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221810133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cisterna, Barbara, Manuela Costanzo, Maria A. Lacavalla, Mirco Galiè, Osvaldo Angelini, Gabriele Tabaracci, and Manuela Malatesta. 2021. "Low Ozone Concentrations Differentially Affect the Structural and Functional Features of Non-Activated and Activated Fibroblasts In Vitro" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 18: 10133. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221810133

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