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Review

Microbeam Radiotherapy—A Novel Therapeutic Approach to Overcome Radioresistance and Enhance Anti-Tumour Response in Melanoma

1
Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department of Genetics, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
3
Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
4
University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ali Jazirehi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7755; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147755
Received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 15 July 2021 / Accepted: 17 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy of Melanoma: Challenges and Solutions)
Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, due to its invasiveness and limited treatment efficacy. The main therapy for primary melanoma and solitary organ metastases is wide excision. Adjuvant therapy, such as chemotherapy and targeted therapies are mainly used for disseminated disease. Radiotherapy (RT) is a powerful treatment option used in more than 50% of cancer patients, however, conventional RT alone is unable to eradicate melanoma. Its general radioresistance is attributed to overexpression of repair genes in combination with cascades of biochemical repair mechanisms. A novel sophisticated technique based on synchrotron-generated, spatially fractionated RT, called Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), has been shown to overcome these treatment limitations by allowing increased dose delivery. With MRT, a collimator subdivides the homogeneous radiation field into an array of co-planar, high-dose microbeams that are tens of micrometres wide and spaced a few hundred micrometres apart. Different preclinical models demonstrated that MRT has the potential to completely ablate tumours, or significantly improve tumour control while dramatically reducing normal tissue toxicity. Here, we discuss the role of conventional RT-induced immunity and the potential for MRT to enhance local and systemic anti-tumour immune responses. Comparative gene expression analysis from preclinical tumour models indicated a specific gene signature for an ‘MRT-induced immune effect’. This focused review highlights the potential of MRT to overcome the inherent radioresistance of melanoma which could be further enhanced for future clinical use with combined treatment strategies, in particular, immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiotherapy; melanoma; immune response; spatial fractionation; microbeam radiotherapy; synchrotron; oncology radiotherapy; melanoma; immune response; spatial fractionation; microbeam radiotherapy; synchrotron; oncology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trappetti, V.; Fazzari, J.M.; Fernandez-Palomo, C.; Scheidegger, M.; Volarevic, V.; Martin, O.A.; Djonov, V.G. Microbeam Radiotherapy—A Novel Therapeutic Approach to Overcome Radioresistance and Enhance Anti-Tumour Response in Melanoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 7755. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147755

AMA Style

Trappetti V, Fazzari JM, Fernandez-Palomo C, Scheidegger M, Volarevic V, Martin OA, Djonov VG. Microbeam Radiotherapy—A Novel Therapeutic Approach to Overcome Radioresistance and Enhance Anti-Tumour Response in Melanoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14):7755. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147755

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trappetti, Verdiana, Jennifer M. Fazzari, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Maximilian Scheidegger, Vladislav Volarevic, Olga A. Martin, and Valentin G. Djonov. 2021. "Microbeam Radiotherapy—A Novel Therapeutic Approach to Overcome Radioresistance and Enhance Anti-Tumour Response in Melanoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7755. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147755

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