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Repurposing Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer: A Focus on Transporters and Lysosomal Sequestration

1
Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic
2
International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital, 65691 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3157; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093157
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Prevention with Molecular Target Therapies)
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are being increasingly used to treat various malignancies. Although they were designed to target aberrant tyrosine kinases, they are also intimately linked with the mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. MDR-related solute carrier (SLC) and ATB-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are responsible for TKI uptake and efflux, respectively. However, the role of TKIs appears to be dual because they can act as substrates and/or inhibitors of these transporters. In addition, several TKIs have been identified to be sequestered into lysosomes either due to their physiochemical properties or via ABC transporters expressed on the lysosomal membrane. Since the development of MDR represents a great concern in anticancer treatment, it is important to elucidate the interactions of TKIs with MDR-related transporters as well as to improve the properties that would prevent TKIs from diffusing into lysosomes. These findings not only help to avoid MDR, but also help to define the possible impact of combining TKIs with other anticancer drugs, leading to more efficient therapy and fewer adverse effects in patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: tyrosine kinase inhibitor; multidrug resistance; cancer; ABC transporter; SLC transporter; lysosomal sequestration tyrosine kinase inhibitor; multidrug resistance; cancer; ABC transporter; SLC transporter; lysosomal sequestration
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Krchniakova, M.; Skoda, J.; Neradil, J.; Chlapek, P.; Veselska, R. Repurposing Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Cancer: A Focus on Transporters and Lysosomal Sequestration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3157.

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