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Article

Escherichia coli O157:H7 F9 Fimbriae Recognize Plant Xyloglucan and Elicit a Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

1
Cell & Molecular Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK
2
Enzyme and Cell Engineering UMR 7025 CNRS, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CEDEX, 60205 Compiègne, France
3
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
4
SRUC, Department of Rural Land Use, Craibstone Estate, Aberdeen AB21 9YA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249720
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Recognition in the Immune System)
Fresh produce is often a source of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) outbreaks. Fimbriae are extracellular structures involved in cell-to-cell attachment and surface colonisation. F9 (Fml) fimbriae have been shown to be expressed at temperatures lower than 37 °C, implying a function beyond the mammalian host. We demonstrate that F9 fimbriae recognize plant cell wall hemicellulose, specifically galactosylated side chains of xyloglucan, using glycan arrays. E. coli expressing F9 fimbriae had a positive advantage for adherence to spinach hemicellulose extract and tissues, which have galactosylated oligosaccharides as recognized by LM24 and LM25 antibodies. As fimbriae are multimeric structures with a molecular pattern, we investigated whether F9 fimbriae could induce a transcriptional response in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, compared with flagella and another fimbrial type, E. coli common pilus (ECP), using DNA microarrays. F9 induced the differential expression of 435 genes, including genes involved in the plant defence response. The expression of F9 at environmentally relevant temperatures and its recognition of plant xyloglucan adds to the suite of adhesins EHEC has available to exploit the plant niche. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; host–microbe interaction; bacterial adhesion; fimbriae; glycan array; xyloglucan; plant defence; ELISA; immunofluorescence microscopy Escherichia coli; host–microbe interaction; bacterial adhesion; fimbriae; glycan array; xyloglucan; plant defence; ELISA; immunofluorescence microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Holmes, A.; Rossez, Y.; Wright, K.M.; Hedley, P.E.; Morris, J.; Willats, W.G.T.; Holden, N.J. Escherichia coli O157:H7 F9 Fimbriae Recognize Plant Xyloglucan and Elicit a Response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9720. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249720

AMA Style

Holmes A, Rossez Y, Wright KM, Hedley PE, Morris J, Willats WGT, Holden NJ. Escherichia coli O157:H7 F9 Fimbriae Recognize Plant Xyloglucan and Elicit a Response in Arabidopsis thaliana. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9720. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249720

Chicago/Turabian Style

Holmes, Ashleigh, Yannick Rossez, Kathryn M. Wright, Pete E. Hedley, Jenny Morris, William G.T. Willats, and Nicola J. Holden. 2020. "Escherichia coli O157:H7 F9 Fimbriae Recognize Plant Xyloglucan and Elicit a Response in Arabidopsis thaliana" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9720. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249720

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