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Open AccessCommunication

Serial Femtosecond X-Ray Diffraction of HIV-1 Gag MA-IP6 Microcrystals at Ambient Temperature

1
Department of Drug Discovery, Science Farm Ltd., Kumamoto 862-0976, Japan
2
Department of Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan
3
Stanford PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
4
Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
5
Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
6
Structural Biology Research Center, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK/High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0034, Japan
7
Biosciences Division, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
8
Research Institute for Drug Discovery, School of Pharmacy, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071675
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
The Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) domain is involved in the highly regulated assembly process of the virus particles that occur at the host cell’s plasma membrane. High-resolution structures of the MA domain determined using cryo X-ray crystallography have provided initial insights into the possible steps in the viral assembly process. However, these structural studies have relied on large and frozen crystals in order to reduce radiation damage caused by the intense X-rays. Here, we report the first X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) study of the HIV-1 MA domain’s interaction with inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a phospholipid headgroup mimic. We also describe the purification, characterization and microcrystallization of two MA crystal forms obtained in the presence of IP6. In addition, we describe the capabilities of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using an XFEL to elucidate the diffraction data of MA-IP6 complex microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature. Two different microcrystal forms of the MA-IP6 complex both diffracted to beyond 3.5 Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX to study the complexes of MA domain of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein with IP6 at near-physiological temperatures. Further optimization of the experimental and data analysis procedures will lead to better understanding of the MA domain of HIV-1 Gag and IP6 interaction at high resolution and will provide basis for optimization of the lead compounds for efficient inhibition of the Gag protein recruitment to the plasma membrane prior to virion formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Serial Femtosecond X-ray crystallography; human immunodeficiency virus; matrix protein; inositol hexaphosphate; ambient temperature Serial Femtosecond X-ray crystallography; human immunodeficiency virus; matrix protein; inositol hexaphosphate; ambient temperature
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I Ciftci, H.; G Sierra, R.; Yoon, C.H.; Su, Z.; Tateishi, H.; Koga, R.; Kotaro, K.; Yumoto, F.; Senda, T.; Liang, M.; Wakatsuki, S.; Otsuka, M.; Fujita, M.; DeMirci, H. Serial Femtosecond X-Ray Diffraction of HIV-1 Gag MA-IP6 Microcrystals at Ambient Temperature. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1675.

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