Next Article in Journal
The Phosphoproteomic Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Seedlings to Salt Stress
Next Article in Special Issue
Molecular Mechanisms Driving Progression of Liver Cirrhosis towards Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis B and C Infections: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Selective Substitution of Cysteine Residues on the Conformational Properties of Chlorotoxin Explored by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Usefulness of Immunohistochemistry in the Differential Diagnosis of Lesions Originating from the Myometrium
Open AccessReview

Nano-Strategies to Target Breast Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: Rearranging the Tumor Microenvironment to Achieve Antitumor Efficacy

1
Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences “L. Sacco”, Università degli studi di Milano, via G. B. Grassi 74, 20157 Milano, Italy
2
Nanomedicine and Molecular Imaging Lab, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, via Maugeri 4, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Breast Unit, Surgery Department, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, via Maugeri 4, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061263
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are the most abundant cells of the tumor stroma and they critically influence cancer growth through control of the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). CAF-orchestrated reactive stroma, composed of pro-tumorigenic cytokines and growth factors, matrix components, neovessels, and deregulated immune cells, is associated with poor prognosis in multiple carcinomas, including breast cancer. Therefore, beyond cancer cells killing, researchers are currently focusing on TME as strategy to fight breast cancer. In recent years, nanomedicine has provided a number of smart delivery systems based on active targeting of breast CAF and immune-mediated overcome of chemoresistance. Many efforts have been made both to eradicate breast CAF and to reshape their identity and function. Nano-strategies for CAF targeting profoundly contribute to enhance chemosensitivity of breast tumors, enabling access of cytotoxic T-cells and reducing immunosuppressive signals. TME rearrangement also includes reorganization of the extracellular matrix to enhance permeability to chemotherapeutics, and nano-systems for smart coupling of chemo- and immune-therapy, by increasing immunogenicity and stimulating antitumor immunity. The present paper reviews the current state-of-the-art on nano-strategies to target breast CAF and TME. Finally, we consider and discuss future translational perspectives of proposed nano-strategies for clinical application in breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts; tumor microenvironment; nanoparticles; breast cancer; antitumor efficacy cancer-associated fibroblasts; tumor microenvironment; nanoparticles; breast cancer; antitumor efficacy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Truffi, M.; Mazzucchelli, S.; Bonizzi, A.; Sorrentino, L.; Allevi, R.; Vanna, R.; Morasso, C.; Corsi, F. Nano-Strategies to Target Breast Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts: Rearranging the Tumor Microenvironment to Achieve Antitumor Efficacy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1263.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop