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Open AccessArticle

Miscanthus x giganteus Stem Versus Leaf-Derived Lignins Differing in Monolignol Ratio and Linkage

1
Department of Natural Sciences, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, von-Liebig-Strasse 20, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany
2
Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, Klein-Altendorf 2, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany
3
Field Lab Campus Klein-Altendorf, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, Campus Klein-Altendorf 1, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany
4
Spectral Service AG, Emil-Hoffmann-Strasse 33, D-50996 Köln, Germany
5
Institute of Chemistry, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Street 83, 410012 Saratov, Russia
6
Department of Chemistry, MS 015, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051200
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
As a renewable, Miscanthus offers numerous advantages such as high photosynthesis activity (as a C4 plant) and an exceptional CO2 fixation rate. These properties make Miscanthus very attractive for industrial exploitation, such as lignin generation. In this paper, we present a systematic study analyzing the correlation of the lignin structure with the Miscanthus genotype and plant portion (stem versus leaf). Specifically, the ratio of the three monolignols and corresponding building blocks as well as the linkages formed between the units have been studied. The lignin amount has been determined for M. x giganteus (Gig17, Gig34, Gig35), M. nagara (NagG10), M. sinensis (Sin2), and M. robustus (Rob4) harvested at different time points (September, December, and April). The influence of the Miscanthus genotype and plant component (leaf vs. stem) has been studied to develop corresponding structure-property relationships (i.e., correlations in molecular weight, polydispersity, and decomposition temperature). Lignin isolation was performed using non-catalyzed organosolv pulping and the structure analysis includes compositional analysis, Fourier transform infradred (FTIR), ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis), hetero-nuclear single quantum correlation nuclear magnetic resonsnce (HSQC-NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and pyrolysis gaschromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Structural differences were found for stem and leaf-derived lignins. Compared to beech wood lignins, Miscanthus lignins possess lower molecular weight and narrow polydispersities (<1.5 Miscanthus vs. >2.5 beech) corresponding to improved homogeneity. In addition to conventional univariate analysis of FTIR spectra, multivariate chemometrics revealed distinct differences for aromatic in-plane deformations of stem versus leaf-derived lignins. These results emphasize the potential of Miscanthus as a low-input resource and a Miscanthus-derived lignin as promising agricultural feedstock. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; chemometrics; genotype; HSQC NMR; lignin; Miscanthus x giganteus; monolignol ratio; principal component analysis biomass; chemometrics; genotype; HSQC NMR; lignin; Miscanthus x giganteus; monolignol ratio; principal component analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bergs, M.; Völkering, G.; Kraska, T.; Pude, R.; Do, X.T.; Kusch, P.; Monakhova, Y.; Konow, C.; Schulze, M. Miscanthus x giganteus Stem Versus Leaf-Derived Lignins Differing in Monolignol Ratio and Linkage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1200. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051200

AMA Style

Bergs M, Völkering G, Kraska T, Pude R, Do XT, Kusch P, Monakhova Y, Konow C, Schulze M. Miscanthus x giganteus Stem Versus Leaf-Derived Lignins Differing in Monolignol Ratio and Linkage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(5):1200. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051200

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bergs, Michel; Völkering, Georg; Kraska, Thorsten; Pude, Ralf; Do, Xuan T.; Kusch, Peter; Monakhova, Yulia; Konow, Christopher; Schulze, Margit. 2019. "Miscanthus x giganteus Stem Versus Leaf-Derived Lignins Differing in Monolignol Ratio and Linkage" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 5: 1200. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051200

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