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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030484

The Importance of Physioxia in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis and the Mechanisms Controlling Its Response

1
Laboratory of Experimental Trauma Surgery, Department of Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz Josef Strauss Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97239, USA
3
Sporthopaedicum Regensburg, Hildegard von Bingen Strasse 1, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract

Articular cartilage covers the surface of synovial joints and enables joint movement. However, it is susceptible to progressive degeneration with age that can be accelerated by either previous joint injury or meniscectomy. This degenerative disease is known as osteoarthritis (OA) and it greatly affects the adult population. Cell-based tissue engineering provides a possible solution for treating OA at its earliest stages, particularly focal cartilage lesions. A candidate cell type for treating these focal defects are Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). However, present methods for differentiating these cells towards the chondrogenic lineage lead to hypertrophic chondrocytes and bone formation in vivo. Environmental stimuli that can stabilise the articular chondrocyte phenotype without compromising tissue formation have been extensively investigated. One factor that has generated intensive investigation in MSC chondrogenesis is low oxygen tension or physioxia (2–5% oxygen). In vivo articular cartilage resides at oxygen tensions between 1–4%, and in vitro results suggest that these conditions are beneficial for MSC expansion and chondrogenesis, particularly in suppressing the cartilage hypertrophy. This review will summarise the current literature regarding the effects of physioxia on MSC chondrogenesis with an emphasis on the pathways that control tissue formation and cartilage hypertrophy. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells; chondrogenesis; hypoxia; cartilage; hypertrophy; hypoxia inducible factors; early osteoarthritis mesenchymal stem cells; chondrogenesis; hypoxia; cartilage; hypertrophy; hypoxia inducible factors; early osteoarthritis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pattappa, G.; Johnstone, B.; Zellner, J.; Docheva, D.; Angele, P. The Importance of Physioxia in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis and the Mechanisms Controlling Its Response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 484.

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