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Open AccessArticle

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 3-Loaded Decellularized Equine Tendon Matrix for Orthopedic Tissue Engineering

1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Department for Horses, University of Leipzig, D 04103 Leipzig, Germany
2
Saxonian Incubator for Clinical Translation, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Equine Clinic-Surgery, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215474
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tendon/Ligament Reconstruction by Tissue Engineering)
Transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) promotes tenogenic differentiation and may enhance tendon regeneration in vivo. This study aimed to apply TGFβ3 absorbed in decellularized equine superficial digital flexor tendon scaffolds, and to investigate the bioactivity of scaffold-associated TGFβ3 in an in vitro model. TGFβ3 could effectively be loaded onto tendon scaffolds so that at least 88% of the applied TGFβ3 were not detected in the rinsing fluid of the TGFβ3-loaded scaffolds. Equine adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) were then seeded on scaffolds loaded with 300 ng TGFβ3 to assess its bioactivity. Both scaffold-associated TGFβ3 and TGFβ3 dissolved in the cell culture medium, the latter serving as control group, promoted elongation of cell shapes and scaffold contraction (p < 0.05). Furthermore, scaffold-associated and dissolved TGFβ3 affected MSC musculoskeletal gene expression in a similar manner, with an upregulation of tenascin c and downregulation of other matrix molecules, most markedly decorin (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that the bioactivity of scaffold-associated TGFβ3 is preserved, thus TGFβ3 application via absorption in decellularized tendon scaffolds is a feasible approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: tissue engineering; tendon; scaffold; multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC); transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3); surface coating; regeneration; horse tissue engineering; tendon; scaffold; multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC); transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3); surface coating; regeneration; horse
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Roth, S.P.; Brehm, W.; Groß, C.; Scheibe, P.; Schubert, S.; Burk, J. Transforming Growth Factor Beta 3-Loaded Decellularized Equine Tendon Matrix for Orthopedic Tissue Engineering. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5474.

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