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Open AccessArticle

Unhealthy Levels of Phthalates and Bisphenol A in Mexican Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes and Its Association to Altered Expression of miRNAs Involved with Metabolic Disease

1
Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Ciudad de México 04960, México
2
Unidad de Investigación en Reproducción Humana, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología “Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes” – Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 11000, México
3
Coordinación del Servicio de Endocrinología, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología “Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes”, Ciudad de México 11000, México
4
Coordinación para la Innovación y Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí 78210, México
5
Departamento de Sistemas Biológicos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Ciudad de México 04960, México
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133343
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Targets and Toxicity)
Several studies indicate that bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates may have a role in the development of metabolic diseases using different molecular pathways, including epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether exposure to these chemicals modifies serum levels of miRNAs associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. In the present study, we evaluated the serum levels of miRNAs associated with GDM (miR-9-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-330-3p) and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites (mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (MEHP)) and bisphenol A in GDM patients and women without GDM during the second trimester of gestation. We observed higher levels of miR-9-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-330-3p in sera of patients with GDM compared to non-diabetic subjects. Phthalates were detected in 97–100% of urine samples, while BPA only in 40%. Urinary MEHP and BPA concentrations were remarkably higher in both study groups compared to previously reported data. Unadjusted MEHP levels and adjusted BPA levels were higher in non-diabetics than in GDM patients (p = 0.03, p = 0.02). We found positive correlations between adjusted urinary MBzP levels and miR-16-5p expression levels (p < 0.05), adjusted MEHP concentrations and miR-29a-3p expression levels (p < 0.05). We also found negative correlations between unadjusted and adjusted MBP concentrations and miR-29a-3p expression levels (p < 0.0001, p < 0.05), unadjusted MiBP concentrations and miR-29a-3p expression levels (p < 0.01). Urinary MEHP levels reflect a striking exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in pregnant Mexican women. This study highlights the need for a regulatory strategy in the manufacture of several items containing endocrine disruptors in order to avoid involuntary ingestion of these compounds in the Mexican population. View Full-Text
Keywords: gestational diabetes; circulating miRNAs; phthalates; bisphenol A; endocrine disruptors; urinary metabolites gestational diabetes; circulating miRNAs; phthalates; bisphenol A; endocrine disruptors; urinary metabolites
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Martínez-Ibarra, A.; Martínez-Razo, L.D.; Vázquez-Martínez, E.R.; Martínez-Cruz, N.; Flores-Ramírez, R.; García-Gómez, E.; López-López, M.; Ortega-González, C.; Camacho-Arroyo, I.; Cerbón, M. Unhealthy Levels of Phthalates and Bisphenol A in Mexican Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes and Its Association to Altered Expression of miRNAs Involved with Metabolic Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3343.

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