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Open AccessArticle

Cystathionine-Gamma-Lyase-Derived Hydrogen Sulfide-Regulated Substance P Modulates Liver Sieve Fenestrations in Caecal Ligation and Puncture-Induced Sepsis

1
Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
2
Ageing and Alzheimers Institute, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney and Concord Hospital, Sydney 2139, Australia
3
Showa Pharmaceutical University, Machida 194-8543, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133191
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acid Metabolism and Regulation in Health and Disease)
Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is a hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-synthesizing enzyme that promotes inflammation by upregulating H2S in sepsis. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are fenestrated endothelial cells (liver sieve) that undergo alteration during sepsis and H2S plays a role in this process. Substance P (SP) is encoded by the preprotachykinin A (PPTA) gene, and promotes inflammation in sepsis; however, its regulation by H2S is poorly understood. Furthermore, the interaction between H2S and SP in modulating LSEC fenestrations following sepsis remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether CSE/H2S regulates SP and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) and modulates fenestrations in LSECs following caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Here we report that the absence of either CSE or H2S protects against liver sieve defenestration and gaps formation in LSECs in sepsis by decreased SP-NK-1R signaling. Following sepsis, there is an increased expression of liver CSE and H2S synthesis, and plasma H2S levels, which were aligned with higher SP levels in the liver, lungs and plasma and NK-1R in the liver and lungs. The genetic deletion of CSE led to decreased sepsis-induced SP and NK-1R in the liver, lungs and plasma SP suggesting H2S synthesized through CSE regulates the SP-NK-1R pathway in sepsis. Further, mice deficient in the SP-encoding gene (PPTA) preserved sepsis-induced LSEC defenestration and gaps formation, as seen by maintenance of patent fenestrations and fewer gaps. In conclusion, CSE/H2S regulates SP-NK-1R and modulates LSEC fenestrations in sepsis. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogen sulfide; substance P; cystathionine-gamma-lyase; neurokinin-1 receptor; liver sieve hydrogen sulfide; substance P; cystathionine-gamma-lyase; neurokinin-1 receptor; liver sieve
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Gaddam, R.R.; Chambers, S.; Fraser, R.; Cogger, V.C.; Le Couteur, D.G.; Ishii, I.; Bhatia, M. Cystathionine-Gamma-Lyase-Derived Hydrogen Sulfide-Regulated Substance P Modulates Liver Sieve Fenestrations in Caecal Ligation and Puncture-Induced Sepsis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3191.

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