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Review

Identification of Novel Biomarkers of Homologous Recombination Defect in DNA Repair to Predict Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells to PARP-Inhibitors

1
Institute for the Experimental Endocrinology and Oncology, Research National Council, CNR, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University “Federico II” of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Urology Surgery Unit, Antonio Cardarelli Hospital, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123100
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
One of the most common malignancies in men is prostate cancer, for which androgen deprivation is the standard therapy. However, prostate cancer cells become insensitive to anti-androgen treatment and proceed to a castration-resistant state with limited therapeutic options. Therefore, besides the androgen deprivation approach, novel biomarkers are urgently required for specific targeting in this deadly disease. Recently, germline or somatic mutations in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes have been identified in at least 20–25% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC). Defects in genes involved in HR DNA repair can sensitize cancer cells to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, a class of drugs already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast and ovarian cancer carrying germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes. For advanced prostate cancer carrying Breast cancer1/2 (BRCA1/2) or ataxia telengiectasia mutated (ATM) mutations, preclinical studies and clinical trials support the use of PARP-inhibitors, which received breakthrough therapy designation by the FDA. Based on these assumptions, several trials including DNA damage response and repair (DDR) targeting have been launched and are ongoing for prostate cancer. Here, we review the state-of-the-art potential biomarkers that could be predictive of cancer cell synthetic lethality with PARP inhibitors. The identification of key molecules that are affected in prostate cancer could be assayed in future clinical studies to better stratify prostate cancer patients who might benefit from target therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: genome instability; DNA damage response; synthetic lethality; BRCAness; CCDC6; biomarkers genome instability; DNA damage response; synthetic lethality; BRCAness; CCDC6; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Criscuolo, D.; Morra, F.; Giannella, R.; Cerrato, A.; Celetti, A. Identification of Novel Biomarkers of Homologous Recombination Defect in DNA Repair to Predict Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells to PARP-Inhibitors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3100. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123100

AMA Style

Criscuolo D, Morra F, Giannella R, Cerrato A, Celetti A. Identification of Novel Biomarkers of Homologous Recombination Defect in DNA Repair to Predict Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells to PARP-Inhibitors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(12):3100. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Criscuolo, Daniela, Francesco Morra, Riccardo Giannella, Aniello Cerrato, and Angela Celetti. 2019. "Identification of Novel Biomarkers of Homologous Recombination Defect in DNA Repair to Predict Sensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells to PARP-Inhibitors" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 12: 3100. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123100

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