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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Glutathione Bio-Molecule on Tooth Discoloration Associated with Silver Diammine Fluoride

1
Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan
2
Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Oral Restitution Department, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8549 Tokyo, Japan
3
Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 113-8510 Tokyo, Japan
4
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051322
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 26 April 2018 / Published: 29 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
This study evaluated the effect of Glutathione (GSH) bio-molecule on the reduction of enamel and dentin discoloration after application of 38% silver diammine fluoride solution (SDF). One hundred and twenty bovine teeth specimens were used. The enamel and dentin specimens were divided into three groups: (1) SDF only (control); (2) SDF followed by application of a potassium iodide solution (KI); and (3) SDF mixed with 20% GSH. Half the specimens were exposed to light and the remainder kept in dark conditions (n = 10) Color changes were measured using a spectrophotometer at the following time intervals: before solution application (baseline) and immediately after application, then 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 h, and 7, 10 and 14 days. SEM/EDS analysis was performed on treated enamel and dentin. Statistical analysis was done using a repeated measures ANOVA test. The spectrophotometer results showed that the SDF group exhibited the greatest color changes under both light exposed and dark conditions, while SDF + GSH group was effective in decreasing the color changes in both light and dark conditions. The SDF + KI group showed an insignificant color changes over time. SEM/EDS analysis showed different patterns for the silver crystal formation in each group (SDF, SDF + GSH, and SDF + KI group). It was concluded GSH can effectively minimize color changes after application of SDF, especially on enamel and to a lesser extent on dentin. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver diammine fluoride; glutathione; discoloration; spectrophotometer silver diammine fluoride; glutathione; discoloration; spectrophotometer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sayed, M.; Matsui, N.; Hiraishi, N.; Nikaido, T.; Burrow, M.F.; Tagami, J. Effect of Glutathione Bio-Molecule on Tooth Discoloration Associated with Silver Diammine Fluoride. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051322

AMA Style

Sayed M, Matsui N, Hiraishi N, Nikaido T, Burrow MF, Tagami J. Effect of Glutathione Bio-Molecule on Tooth Discoloration Associated with Silver Diammine Fluoride. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(5):1322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051322

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sayed, Mahmoud; Matsui, Naoko; Hiraishi, Noriko; Nikaido, Toru; Burrow, Michael F.; Tagami, Junji. 2018. "Effect of Glutathione Bio-Molecule on Tooth Discoloration Associated with Silver Diammine Fluoride" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 5: 1322. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19051322

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