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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030713

Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Radiotherapy: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Studies

1
Section Experimental and Translational Head and Neck Oncology, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Research Group Molecular Mechanisms of Head and Neck Tumors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Pathways of Estrogen Receptor Action)
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Abstract

Numerous studies have established a proof of concept that abnormal expression and function of estrogen receptors (ER) are crucial processes in initiation and development of hormone-related cancers and also affect the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy. Radiotherapy has been applied as one of the most common and potent therapeutic strategies, which is synergistic with surgical excision, chemotherapy and targeted therapy for treating malignant tumors. However, the impact of ionizing radiation on ER expression and ER-related signaling in cancer tissue, as well as the interaction between endocrine and irradiation therapy remains largely elusive. This review will discuss recent findings on ER and ER-related signaling, which are relevant for cancer radiotherapy. In addition, we will summarize pre-clinical and clinical studies that evaluate the consequences of anti-estrogen and irradiation therapy in cancer, including emerging studies on head and neck cancer, which might improve the understanding and development of novel therapeutic strategies for estrogen-related cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen; estrogen receptor; radiotherapy; radioresistance; breast cancer; head and neck cancer estrogen; estrogen receptor; radiotherapy; radioresistance; breast cancer; head and neck cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rong, C.; Meinert, É.F.R.C.; Hess, J. Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Radiotherapy: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Studies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 713.

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