The historical role of mitochondria resides in converting the energy released during the oxidation of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) into adenosine tri-phosphate, a major form of chemically stored energy which sustains cell growth and homeostasis. Beyond this role in bioenergetics regulation, mitochondria play a role in several other cellular processes including lipid metabolism, cellular calcium homeostasis, autophagy and immune responses. Furthermore, mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles: as all other cellular endomembranes, they are continuously moving along cytoskeleton, and, most importantly, they constantly interact one with each other by membrane tethering, fusion and fission. This review aims to highlight the tight correlation between the morphodynamics of mitochondria and their biological function(s), in physiological as well as stress conditions, in particular nutrient deprivation, pathogen attack and some human diseases. Finally, we emphasize some crosstalk between the fusion/fission machinery and the autophagy pathway to ending on some speculative hypothesis to inspire future research in the field.
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