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Open AccessArticle

δ-Tocotrienol, Isolated from Rice Bran, Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect via MAPKs and PPARs Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

1
Hunan Key Laboratory of Grain-Oil Deep Process and Quality Control, Hunan Key Laboratory of Processed Food for Special Medical Purpose, College of Food Science and Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory for Deep Process of Rice and Byproducts, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan, China
2
Department of Clinic Medicine, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103022
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemopreventive Activities of Phytochemicals)
δ-Tocotrienol, an important component of vitamin E, has been reported to possess some physiological functions, such as anticancer and anti-inflammation, however their molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, δ-tocotrienol was isolated and purified from rice bran. The anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of δ-tocotrienol against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activated pro-inflammatory mediator expressions in RAW264.7 cells were investigated. Results showed that δ-tocotrienol significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) production and blocked the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). δ-Tocotrienol repressed the transcriptional activations and translocations of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), which were closely related with downregulated cytokine expressions. Meanwhile, δ-tocotrienol also affected the PPAR signal pathway and exerted an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, our data showed that δ-tocotrienol inhibited inflammation via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signalings in LPS-stimulated macrophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice bran; δ-tocotrienol; inflammation; MAPKs; PPARs; RAW264.7 rice bran; δ-tocotrienol; inflammation; MAPKs; PPARs; RAW264.7
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Shen, J.; Yang, T.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Zhong, X.; Shi, L.; Hu, T.; Guo, T.; Nie, Y.; Luo, F.; Lin, Q. δ-Tocotrienol, Isolated from Rice Bran, Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect via MAPKs and PPARs Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3022.

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