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Molecular Interactions of Autophagy with the Immune System and Cancer
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Monitoring and Measuring Autophagy

Focal Area Infection Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 50/70, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1865;
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy at the Intersection of the Immune System and Cancer)
Autophagy is a cytoplasmic degradation system, which is important for starvation adaptation and cellular quality control. Recent advances in understanding autophagy highlight its importance under physiological and pathological conditions. However, methods for monitoring autophagic activity are complicated and the results are sometimes misinterpreted. Here, we review the methods used to identify autophagic structures, and to measure autophagic flux in cultured cells and animals. We will also describe the existing autophagy reporter mice that are useful for autophagy studies and drug testing. Lastly, we will consider the attempts to monitor autophagy in samples derived from humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagosome; autophagic flux; isolation membrane; Keima; LC3; p62/SQSTM1 autophagosome; autophagic flux; isolation membrane; Keima; LC3; p62/SQSTM1
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Yoshii, S.R.; Mizushima, N. Monitoring and Measuring Autophagy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1865.

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