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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112495

MicroRNAs Associated with Von Hippel–Lindau Pathway in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

1
Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
2
Research Unit of Non-Coding RNA and Genome Editing in Cancer, Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
3
Department of Urology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
4
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77054, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most common renal neoplasia and can be divided into three main histologic subtypes, among which clear cell RCC is by far the most common form of kidney cancer. Despite substantial advances over the last decade in the understanding of RCC biology, surgical treatments, and targeted and immuno-therapies in the metastatic setting, the prognosis for advanced RCC patients remains poor. One of the major problems with RCC treatment strategies is inherent or acquired resistance towards therapeutic agents over time. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation, has added new dimensions to the development of novel diagnostic and treatment tools. Because of an association between Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) genes with chromosomal loss in 3p25-26 and clear cell RCC, miRNAs have attracted considerable scientific interest over the last years. The loss of VHL function leads to constitutional activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway and to consequent expression of numerous angiogenic and carcinogenic factors. Since miRNAs represent key players of carcinogenesis, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, as well as in development of metastases in RCC, they might serve as potential therapeutic targets. Several miRNAs are already known to be dysregulated in RCC and have been linked to biological processes involved in tumor angiogenesis and response to anti-cancer therapies. This review summarizes the role of different miRNAs in RCC angiogenesis and their association with the VHL gene, highlighting their potential role as novel drug targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma; Von Hippel-Lindau; angiogenesis; microRNAs renal cell carcinoma; Von Hippel-Lindau; angiogenesis; microRNAs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Schanza, L.-M.; Seles, M.; Stotz, M.; Fosselteder, J.; Hutterer, G.C.; Pichler, M.; Stiegelbauer, V. MicroRNAs Associated with Von Hippel–Lindau Pathway in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2495.

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