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Open AccessArticle

Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris

PhD Program for Clinical Drug Discovery of Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biopharmaceuticals, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan
School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Orthopedics Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paula Andrade and Patrícia Valentão
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 141;
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 12 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin (1), punicalin (2), strictinin A (3), and granatin B (4), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E2 production in heat-killed P. acnes-treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin (1), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker. View Full-Text
Keywords: acne; Punica granatum; anti-inflammation acne; Punica granatum; anti-inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.-J.; Chen, L.-G.; Liang, W.-L.; Wang, C.-C. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 141.

AMA Style

Lee C-J, Chen L-G, Liang W-L, Wang C-C. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(1):141.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung. 2017. "Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 1: 141.

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