Next Article in Journal
Clinical Metabolomics: The New Metabolic Window for Inborn Errors of Metabolism Investigations in the Post-Genomic Era
Next Article in Special Issue
Sex-Specificity of Mineralocorticoid Target Gene Expression during Renal Development, and Long-Term Consequences
Previous Article in Journal
The Conserved Arginine Cluster in the Insert of the Third Cytoplasmic Loop of the Long Form of the D2 Dopamine Receptor (D2L-R) Acts as an Intracellular Retention Signal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1098;

Angiotensin A/Alamandine/MrgD Axis: Another Clue to Understanding Cardiovascular Pathophysiology

Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 811 08 Bratislava, Slovakia
1st Clinic of Medicine, Donauisar Klinikum, 944 69 Deggendorf, Germany
Institute of Normal and Pathological Physiology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 814 38 Bratislava, Slovakia
3rd Clinic of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, 833 05 Bratislava, Slovakia
Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, BMC, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 814 38 Bratislava, Slovakia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anastasia Susie Mihailidou
Received: 6 June 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Hypertension)
Full-Text   |   PDF [759 KB, uploaded 20 July 2016]   |  


The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in cardiovascular regulations and its modulation is a challenging target for the vast majority of cardioprotective strategies. However, many biological effects of these drugs cannot be explained by the known mode of action. Our comprehension of the RAS is thus far from complete. The RAS represents an ingenious system of “checks and balances”. It incorporates vasoconstrictive, pro-proliferative, and pro-inflammatory compounds on one hand and molecules with opposing action on the other hand. The list of these molecules is still not definitive because new biological properties can be achieved by minor alteration of the molecular structure. The angiotensin A/alamandine-MrgD cascade associates the deleterious and protective branches of the RAS. Its identification provided a novel clue to the understanding of the RAS. Angiotensin A (Ang A) is positioned at the “crossroad” in this system since it either elicits direct vasoconstrictive and pro-proliferative actions or it is further metabolized to alamandine, triggering opposing effects. Alamandine, the central molecule of this cascade, can be generated both from the “deleterious” Ang A as well as from the “protective” angiotensin 1–7. This pathway modulates peripheral and central blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular remodeling. Further research will elucidate its interactions in cardiovascular pathophysiology and its possible therapeutic implications. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiotensin A; alamandine; MrgD receptor; renin-angiotensin system angiotensin A; alamandine; MrgD receptor; renin-angiotensin system

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hrenak, J.; Paulis, L.; Simko, F. Angiotensin A/Alamandine/MrgD Axis: Another Clue to Understanding Cardiovascular Pathophysiology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1098.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top