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Chromatin Structure and Dynamics in Hot Environments: Architectural Proteins and DNA Topoisomerases of Thermophilic Archaea

Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources, National Research Council of Italy, Naples 80131, Italy
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 17162-17187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150917162
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 19 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Roles of the Structure of DNA)
In all organisms of the three living domains (Bacteria, Archaea, Eucarya) chromosome-associated proteins play a key role in genome functional organization. They not only compact and shape the genome structure, but also regulate its dynamics, which is essential to allow complex genome functions. Elucidation of chromatin composition and regulation is a critical issue in biology, because of the intimate connection of chromatin with all the essential information processes (transcription, replication, recombination, and repair). Chromatin proteins include architectural proteins and DNA topoisomerases, which regulate genome structure and remodelling at two hierarchical levels. This review is focussed on architectural proteins and topoisomerases from hyperthermophilic Archaea. In these organisms, which live at high environmental temperature (>80 °C <113 °C), chromatin proteins and modulation of the DNA secondary structure are concerned with the problem of DNA stabilization against heat denaturation while maintaining its metabolic activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA topology; DNA structure; thermophilic organisms DNA topology; DNA structure; thermophilic organisms
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Visone, V.; Vettone, A.; Serpe, M.; Valenti, A.; Perugino, G.; Rossi, M.; Ciaramella, M. Chromatin Structure and Dynamics in Hot Environments: Architectural Proteins and DNA Topoisomerases of Thermophilic Archaea. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 17162-17187.

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