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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 9 (September 2011) , Pages 5461-6366

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Open AccessArticle
Recognition-Mediated Assembly of Quantum Dot Polymer Conjugates with Controlled Morphology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6357-6366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096357 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4100
Abstract
We have demonstrated a polymer mediated “bricks and mortar” method for the self-assembly of quantum dots (QDs). This strategy allows QDs to self-assemble into structured aggregates using complementary three-point hydrogen bonding. The resulting nanocomposites have distinct morphologies and inter-particle distances based on the [...] Read more.
We have demonstrated a polymer mediated “bricks and mortar” method for the self-assembly of quantum dots (QDs). This strategy allows QDs to self-assemble into structured aggregates using complementary three-point hydrogen bonding. The resulting nanocomposites have distinct morphologies and inter-particle distances based on the ratio between QDs and polymer. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements showed that the optical properties of the QDs were retained after self-assembly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2011)
Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles under UV-Light
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6346-6356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096346 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 4525
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized using the UV irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The UV irradiation times influence the particles’ diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized using the UV irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The UV irradiation times influence the particles’ diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. When the UV irradiation time was increased, the mean size of particles continuously decreased as a result of photoinduced Ag-NPs fragmentation. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), the UV-irradiated Ag-NPs were a face-centered cubic (fcc) single crystal without any impurity. This study reveals that the UV irradiation-mediated method is a green chemistry and promising route for the synthesis of stable Ag-NPs for several applications (e.g., medical and surgical devices). The important advantages of this method are that it is cheap, easy, and free of toxic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle
Conventional Study on Novel Dicationic Ionic Liquid Inclusion with β-Cyclodextrin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6329-6345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096329 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3831
Abstract
This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of the inclusion complex of β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) with dicationic ionic liquid, 3,3'-(1,4-Phenylenebis [methylene]) bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium) di(bromide) (PhenmimBr). The inclusion complex was prepared at room temperature utilizing conventional kneading technique. Proton (1H) NMR [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of the inclusion complex of β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) with dicationic ionic liquid, 3,3'-(1,4-Phenylenebis [methylene]) bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium) di(bromide) (PhenmimBr). The inclusion complex was prepared at room temperature utilizing conventional kneading technique. Proton (1H) NMR and 2D (1H–1H) COSY NMR were the primary characterization tools employed to verify the formation of the inclusion complex. COSY spectra showed strong correlations between protons of imidazolium and protons of β-CD which indicates that the imidazolium ring of PhenmimBr has entered the cavity of β-CD. UV absorption indicated that β-CD reacts with PhenmimBr to form a 2:1 β-CD-PhenmimBr complex with an apparent formation constant of 2.61 × 105 mol−2 L2. Other characterization studies such as UV, FT-IR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM studies were also used to further support the formation of the β-CD-PhenmimBr inclusion complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Low Concentration Sn Doping on Optical Properties of CdS Films Grown by CBD Technique
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6320-6328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096320 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3852
Abstract
Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization [...] Read more.
Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessCommunication
Improving Protein Crystal Quality by the Without-Oil Microbatch Method: Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Glutathione Synthetase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6312-6319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096312 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4067
Abstract
Glutathione synthetases catalyze the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutathione from L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and glycine. Although these enzymes have been sequenced and characterized from a variety of biological sources, their exact catalytic mechanism is not fully understood and nothing is known about their adaptation at extremophilic [...] Read more.
Glutathione synthetases catalyze the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutathione from L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and glycine. Although these enzymes have been sequenced and characterized from a variety of biological sources, their exact catalytic mechanism is not fully understood and nothing is known about their adaptation at extremophilic environments. Glutathione synthetase from the Antarctic eubacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (PhGshB) has been expressed, purified and successfully crystallized. An overall improvement of the crystal quality has been obtained by adapting the crystal growth conditions found with vapor diffusion experiments to the without-oil microbatch method. The best crystals of PhGshB diffract to 2.34 Å resolution and belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.28 Å, b = 119.88 Å, c = 159.82 Å. Refinement of the model, obtained using phases derived from the structure of the same enzyme from Escherichia coli by molecular replacement, is in progress. The structural determination will provide the first structural characterization of a psychrophilic glutathione synthetase reported to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Probing Structural Features and Binding Mode of 3-Arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones within Housefly γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6293-6311; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096293 - 23 Sep 2011
Viewed by 4170
Abstract
In order to obtain structural features of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones emerged as promising inhibitors of insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, a set of ligand-/receptor-based 3D-QSAR models for 60 derivatives are generated using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA). The [...] Read more.
In order to obtain structural features of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones emerged as promising inhibitors of insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, a set of ligand-/receptor-based 3D-QSAR models for 60 derivatives are generated using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA). The statistically optimal CoMSIA model is produced with highest q2 of 0.62, r2ncv of 0.97, and r2pred of 0.95. A minor/bulky electronegative hydrophilic polar substituent at the 1-/6-postion of the uracil ring, and bulky substituents at the 3'-, 4'- and 5'-positions of the benzene ring are beneficial for the enhanced potency of the inhibitors as revealed by the obtained 3D-contour maps. Furthermore, homology modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and molecular docking are also carried out to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of these inhibitors, and the results show that residues Ala-183(C), Thr-187(B), Thr-187(D) and Thr-187(E) in the second transmembrane domains of GABA receptor are responsible for the H-bonding interactions with the inhibitor. The good correlation between docking observations and 3D-QSAR analyses further proves the model reasonability in probing the structural features and the binding mode of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-dione derivatives within the housefly GABA receptor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
Open AccessArticle
Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6281-6292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096281 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4546
Abstract
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the commonest form of human prion diseases, accounting for about 85% of all cases. Current criteria for intra vitam diagnosis include a distinct phenotype, periodic sharp and slow-wave complexes at electroencephalography (EEG), and a positive 14-3-3-protein assay in [...] Read more.
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the commonest form of human prion diseases, accounting for about 85% of all cases. Current criteria for intra vitam diagnosis include a distinct phenotype, periodic sharp and slow-wave complexes at electroencephalography (EEG), and a positive 14-3-3-protein assay in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In sCJD, the disease phenotype may vary, depending upon the genotype at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), a site of a common methionine/valine polymorphism, and two distinct conformers of the pathological prion protein. Based on the combination of these molecular determinants, six different sCJD subtypes are recognized, each with distinctive clinical and pathologic phenotypes. We analyzed CSF samples from 127 subjects with definite sCJD to assess the diagnostic value of 14-3-3 protein, total tau protein, phosphorylated181 tau, and amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide 1-42, either alone or in combination. While the 14-3-3 assay and tau protein levels were the most sensitive indicators of sCJD, the highest sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were obtained when all the above markers were combined. The latter approach also allowed a reliable differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative dementias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
Open AccessReview
Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6267-6280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096267 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 136 | Viewed by 8213
Abstract
Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter [...] Read more.
Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) from ambient air and certain workplaces. There are two main types of NPs; combustion-derived NPs (e.g., particulate matters, diesel exhaust particles, welding fumes) and manufactured or engineered NPs (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, silver, zinc oxide, copper oxide). Recently, there have been increasing reports indicating that inhaled NPs can reach the brain and may be associated with neurodegeneration. It is necessary to evaluate the potential toxic effects of NPs on brain because most of the neurobehavioral disorders may be of environmental origin. This review highlights studies on both combustion-derived NP- and manufactured or engineered NP-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression, as well as the possible mechanism of these effects in animal models and in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Phenolic Antioxidant Extraction from Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) Pulp Using Random-Centroid Optimazation Methodology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6255-6266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096255 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3946
Abstract
The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid [...] Read more.
The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid and solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH, temperature, heating time and extraction times, and three extraction targets of polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and extract yield were considered in the RCO program. Three sets of optimum proposed factor values were obtained corresponding to three extraction targets respectively. The set of optimum proposed factor values for polyphenol extraction given was chosen in further experiments as following: liquid and solid ratio (v/w) 8, ethanol 67.3% (v/v), initial pH 1.75, temperature 55 °C for 4 h and extraction repeated for 4 times. The Wuweizi polyphenol extract (WPE) was obtained with a yield of 16.37 mg/g and composition of polyphenols 1.847 mg/g, anthocyanins 0.179 mg/g, sugar 9.573 mg/g and protein 0.327 mg/g. The WPE demonstrated high scavenging activities against DPPH radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Preparation and Scintillating Properties of Sol-Gel Eu3+, Tb3+ Co-Doped Lu2O3 Nanopowders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6240-6254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096240 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4231
Abstract
Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and [...] Read more.
Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O2 atmosphere, and the yielded product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural behavior and confirm the crystalline structure. The results showed that Lu2O3 nanopowders start to crystallize at 400 °C and that the crystallite size increases along with the annealing temperature. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of samples annealed at 700 and 900 °C was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure, as well as the size, of crystallites. Finally, in regard to scintillating properties, Eu3+ dopant (5 mol%), Tb3+ codoped Lu2O3 exhibited a typical red emission at 611 nm (Do7F2), furthermore, the effect of Tb3+ molar content (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02% mol) on the Eu3+ radioluminiscence was analyzed and it was found that the higher emission intensity corresponds to the lower Tb3+ content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessReview
Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6226-6239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096226 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 5904
Abstract
One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations [...] Read more.
One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently been characterized in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, and the human homologs include the Sirtuin family of protein deacetylases. Interestingly, three of the seven sirtuin proteins are localized into the mitochondria suggesting a connection between the mitochondrial sirtuins, the free radical theory of aging, and carcinogenesis. Based on these results it has been hypothesized that Sirt3 functions as a mitochondrial fidelity protein whose function governs both aging and carcinogenesis by modulating ROS metabolism. Sirt3 has also now been identified as a genomically expressed, mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor and this review will outline potential relationships between mitochondrial ROS/superoxide levels, aging, and cell phenotypes permissive for estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessArticle
Fabrication, Modeling and Characterization of Multi-Crosslinked Methacrylate Copolymeric Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6194-6225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096194 - 23 Sep 2011
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4817
Abstract
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8–43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessArticle
Optical Properties of Some New Azo Photoisomerizable Bismaleimide Derivatives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6176-6193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096176 - 21 Sep 2011
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4725
Abstract
Novel polythioetherimides bearing azobenzene moieties were synthesized from azobismaleimides and bis-2-mercaptoethylether. Kinetics of trans-cis photoisomerization and of thermal conversion of cis to trans isomeric forms were investigated in both polymer solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) doped films using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Thermal recovery kinetics [...] Read more.
Novel polythioetherimides bearing azobenzene moieties were synthesized from azobismaleimides and bis-2-mercaptoethylether. Kinetics of trans-cis photoisomerization and of thermal conversion of cis to trans isomeric forms were investigated in both polymer solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) doped films using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Thermal recovery kinetics is well described by a two-exponential relation both in solution and polymer matrix, while that of low molecular weight azobismaleimide fit a first-order equation. The photoinduced cis-trans isomerization by visible light of azobenzene chromophores was examined in solution and in polymer films. The rate of photoinduced recovery was very high for azobismaleimides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessArticle
Difference in TRI13 Gene Sequences between the 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Producing Fusarium graminearum Chemotypes from Canada and China
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6164-6175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096164 - 20 Sep 2011
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4389
Abstract
Positive-negative PCR assays based on the genes involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway are useful in assessing the risk of trichothecene contamination in grain and are important in epidemiological studies. A single PCR detection method based on the structural gene sequence of TRI13 [...] Read more.
Positive-negative PCR assays based on the genes involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway are useful in assessing the risk of trichothecene contamination in grain and are important in epidemiological studies. A single PCR detection method based on the structural gene sequence of TRI13 gene has been developed to predict the 3-ADON, 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes in China. The chemotypic differences are based on the deletions within the TRI13 gene. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of using this single primer based on the TRI13 gene to differentiate the F. graminearum chemotypes in Canada. In this study, we found that, this single PCR detection method based on the deletions in the TRI13 gene cannot be used to differentiate the 3-ADON and 15-ADON chemotypes in the Canadian F. graminearum isolates; further sequence analysis of the PCR products confirmed that both Canadian 3-ADON and 15-ADON chemotypes have the 61 bp deletion in the TRI13 gene. This 61 bp deletion was absent in the Chinese 3-ADON isolates. Therefore these findings revealed that there are genetic differences between the examined 3-ADON F. graminearum isolates from Canada and China. The observed genetic differences between the 3-ADON chemotype populations in Canada and China may be resulted from a random mutation (insertion/deletion) that took place in one of the populations and accumulated due to genetic drift and/or selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Different Impacts of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Oxidative Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6146-6163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096146 - 20 Sep 2011
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5231
Abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide) together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components) and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN) were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20) and patients (n = 90) by assessing mRNA levels. Activity of some of these antioxidant enzymes was also tested. An increase in OS and pro-oxidant gene mRNA values was observed in patients compared to controls. The hypertensive group showed not only the highest OS values, but also the highest pro-oxidant activation compared to those observed in the other groups. In addition, in HT a significantly reduced antioxidant activity and mRNA induction of antioxidant genes were found when compared to controls and the other groups. In FH and FCH, the activation of pro-oxidant enzymes was also higher and antioxidant ones lower than in the control group, although it did not reach the values obtained in hypertensives. The thioredoxin system was more activated in patients as compared to controls, and the highest levels were in hypertensives. The increased oxidative status in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a consequence of both the activation of pro-oxidant mechanisms and the reduction of the antioxidant ones. The altered response of the main cytoplasmic antioxidant systems largely contributes to OS despite the apparent attempt of the thioredoxin system to control it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle
Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6135-6145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096135 - 20 Sep 2011
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 5315
Abstract
The current study evaluated the glucose-lowering effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice per group): diabetic control group, low-dose Gl-PS treated group (50 mg/kg, Gl-PS), high-dose Gl-PS treated [...] Read more.
The current study evaluated the glucose-lowering effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice per group): diabetic control group, low-dose Gl-PS treated group (50 mg/kg, Gl-PS), high-dose Gl-PS treated group (150 mg/kg, Gl-PS) and positive drug control treated group (glibenclamide, 4 mg/kg), with normal mice used as the control group. Body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin and blood lipid levels of mice were measured. After 28 days of treatment with Gl-PS, body weights and serum insulin levels of the Gl-PS treated groups was significantly higher than that of the diabetic control group , whereas FBG levels was significantly lower. Moreover, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of the Gl-PS treated groups had dropped, whereas the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels had increased. In addition, according to acute toxicity studies, Gl-PS did not cause behavioral changes and any death of mice. These data suggest that Gl-PS has an antihyperglycemic effect. Furthermore, considering the Gl-PS effects on lipid profile, it may be a potential hypolipidaemic agent, which will be a great advantage in treating diabetic conditions associated with atherosclerosis or hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
High-Density Real-Time PCR-Based in Vivo Toxicogenomic Screen to Predict Organ-Specific Toxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6116-6134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096116 - 19 Sep 2011
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5570
Abstract
Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study [...] Read more.
Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study our objective was to extend in vivo toxicogenomic screening from analyzing one or a few tissues to multiple organs, including heart, kidney, brain, liver and spleen. Nanocapillary quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used in the study, due to its higher throughput, sensitivity and reproducibility, and larger dynamic range compared to DNA microarray technologies. Based on previous data, 56 gene markers were selected coding for proteins with different functions, such as proteins for acute phase response, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, heat-shock response, cell cycle/apoptosis regulation and enzymes which are involved in detoxification. Some of the marker genes are specific to certain organs, and some of them are general indicators of toxicity in multiple organs. Utility of the nanocapillary QRT-PCR platform was demonstrated by screening different references, as well as discovery of drug-like compounds for their gene expression profiles in different organs of treated mice in an acute experiment. For each compound, 896 QRT-PCR were done: four organs were used from each of the treated four animals to monitor the relative expression of 56 genes. Based on expression data of the discovery gene set of toxicology biomarkers the cardio- and nephrotoxicity of doxorubicin and sulfasalazin, the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of rotenone, dihydrocoumarin and aniline, and the liver toxicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene could be confirmed. The acute heart and kidney toxicity of the active metabolite SN-38 from its less toxic prodrug, irinotecan could be differentiated, and two novel gene markers for hormone replacement therapy were identified, namely fabp4 and pparg, which were down-regulated by estradiol treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicogenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Structure–Activity Relationship of Halophenols as a New Class of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6104-6115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096104 - 19 Sep 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4080
Abstract
A series of new benzophenone and diphenylmethane halophenol derivatives were prepared. Their structures were established based on 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS data. All prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitory activities. The effects [...] Read more.
A series of new benzophenone and diphenylmethane halophenol derivatives were prepared. Their structures were established based on 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS data. All prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitory activities. The effects of modification of the linker, functional groups and substituted positions at the phenyl ring on PTK inhibitory activity were investigated. Twelve halophenols showed significant PTK inhibitory activity. Among them, compounds 6c, 6d, 7d, 9d, 10d, 11d and 13d exhibited stronger activities than that of genistein, the positive reference compound. The results gave a relatively full and definite description of the structure–activity relationship and provided a foundation for further design and structure optimization of the halophenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Identification of a Protein with Antioxidant Activity that is Important for the Protection against Beer Ageing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6089-6103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096089 - 19 Sep 2011
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5713
Abstract
This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian [...] Read more.
This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian lager flavour was maintained in the fresh and vintage beers but was lost in the aged beer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and free thiol group labelling analyses of beer proteins found that this flavour stability correlated with the presence of an unknown 10 kilodaltons (kDa) protein with a higher level of free thiols. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography, then peptide sequencing and database matching identified it as the barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1). Further characterisation using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based antioxidant screening assay demonstrated that the LTP1 protein was active in DPPH reduction and antioxidant activity. The absence of free thiol in the aged beer indicates that the thiol functional groups within the LTP1 protein were saturated and suggests that it is important in the flavour stability of beer by maintaining reduction capacity during the ageing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Parts (Leaf, Stem and Stalk) and Seasons (Summer and Winter) on the Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6077-6088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096077 - 19 Sep 2011
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5088
Abstract
Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the [...] Read more.
Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Academic Aspects of Lunar Water Resources and Their Relevance to Lunar Protolife
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6051-6076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096051 - 19 Sep 2011
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5862
Abstract
Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 109 metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic [...] Read more.
Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 109 metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My). Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino acids. Soluble polyphosphates are available in volcanic fluids as well as vital catalysts such as tungsten. We conclude that the high volume of polar water resources supports the likelihood of lunar volcanism and that lunar volcanism supports the likelihood of protolife. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life 2011)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison of In Situ Polymerization and Solution-Dispersion Techniques in the Preparation of Polyimide/Montmorillonite (MMT) Nanocomposites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6040-6050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096040 - 19 Sep 2011
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3828
Abstract
In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared [...] Read more.
In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD results showed that at the content of 1.0 wt % Organo Montmorillonite (OMMT) for two techniques and 3.0 wt % OMMT for the in situ polymerization technique, the OMMT was well-intercalated, exfoliated and dispersed into polyimide matrix. The OMMT agglomerated when its amount exceeded 10 wt % and 3.0 wt % for solution-dispersion and in situ polymerization techniques respectively. These results were confirmed by the TEM images of the prepared PI/MMT NCs. The TGA thermograms indicated that thermal stability of prepared PI/MMT NCs were increased with the increase of loading that, the effect is higher for the samples prepared by in situ polymerization technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Wild and Hatchery Populations of Korean Pen Shell (Atrina pectinata) Using Microsatellite DNA Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6024-6039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12096024 - 16 Sep 2011
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3478
Abstract
Pen shell (Atrina pectinata) is a popular food source with a high commercial value in a number of Asian Pacific areas. The natural A. pectinata population has been declining continuously over the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful [...] Read more.
Pen shell (Atrina pectinata) is a popular food source with a high commercial value in a number of Asian Pacific areas. The natural A. pectinata population has been declining continuously over the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of pen shell populations. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic pen shell DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery pen shell populations in Korea. A total of 438 alleles were detected at the 20 MS loci in the two populations. All loci were easily amplified and demonstrated allelic variability, with the number of alleles ranging from 5 to 35 in the wild population and from 5 to 22 in the farmed population. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.69 and 0.82, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.69 and 0.83, respectively, in the wild samples. Statistical analysis of fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed minor, but significant, genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (FST = 0.0106, CI95% = 0.003–0.017). These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies for developing conservation and management plans. Further studies with additional pen shell samples are needed to conclusively determine the genetic diversity between the wild and hatchery populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Investigation on Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships and Pharmacophore Modeling of a Series of mGluR2 Antagonists
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5999-6023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095999 - 16 Sep 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4863
Abstract
MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydro-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different [...] Read more.
MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydro-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different activities of the antagonists against rat mGluR2, which has been shown to be very similar to the human mGluR2, (activity I: inhibition of [3H]-LY354740; activity II: mGluR2 (1S,3R)-ACPD inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP.) were derived from datasets composed of 137 and 69 molecules respectively. For activity I study, the best predictive model obtained from CoMFA analysis yielded a Q2 of 0.513, R2ncv of 0.868, R2pred = 0.876, while the CoMSIA model yielded a Q2 of 0.450, R2ncv = 0.899, R2pred = 0.735. For activity II study, CoMFA model yielded statistics of Q2 = 0.5, R2ncv = 0.715, R2pred = 0.723. These results prove the high predictability of the models. Furthermore, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps shows that: (1) Bulky substituents in R7, R3 and position A benefit activity I of the antagonists, but decrease it when projected in R8 and position B; (2) Hydrophilic groups at position A and B increase both antagonistic activity I and II; (3) Electrostatic field plays an essential rule in the variance of activity II. In search for more potent mGluR2 antagonists, two pharmacophore models were developed separately for the two activities. The first model reveals six pharmacophoric features, namely an aromatic center, two hydrophobic centers, an H-donor atom, an H-acceptor atom and an H-donor site. The second model shares all features of the first one and has an additional acceptor site, a positive N and an aromatic center. These models can be used as guidance for the development of new mGluR2 antagonists of high activity and selectivity. This work is the first report on 3D-QSAR modeling of these mGluR2 antagonists. All the conclusions may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of antagonism and be helpful in the design of new potent mGluR2 antagonists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5993-5998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095993 - 16 Sep 2011
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3873
Abstract
We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences [...] Read more.
We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5971-5992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095971 - 16 Sep 2011
Cited by 129 | Viewed by 5896
Abstract
Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessArticle
Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5955-5970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095955 - 15 Sep 2011
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 4635
Abstract
Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and [...] Read more.
Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessArticle
Study on the Stability of DeoxyArbutin in an Anhydrous Emulsion Systemy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5946-5954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095946 - 15 Sep 2011
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5270
Abstract
The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can [...] Read more.
The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. Therefore, to enhance the stability of deoxyArbutin in formulations, we chose the polyol-in-silicone, anhydrous emulsion system as the basic formulation for investigation. The quantity of deoxyArbutin and the accumulation of hydroquinone in both hydrous and anhydrous emulsions at various temperatures were analyzed through an established high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results indicated that water increased the decomposition of deoxyArbutin in the formulations and that the polyol-in-silicone, oil-based, anhydrous emulsion system provided a relatively stable surrounding for the deoxyArbutin that delayed its degradation at 25 °C and 45 °C. Moreover, the composition of the inner hydrophilic phase, containing different amounts of glycerin and propylene glycol, affected the stability of deoxyArbutin. Thus, these results will be beneficial when using deoxyArbutin in cosmetics and medicines in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Open AccessReview
Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Present and Future Prospective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5908-5945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095908 - 14 Sep 2011
Cited by 399 | Viewed by 12748
Abstract
Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting [...] Read more.
Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting technology, are robust molecular recognition elements able to mimic natural recognition entities, such as antibodies and biological receptors, useful to separate and analyze complicated samples such as biological fluids and environmental samples. The scope of this review is to provide a general overview on MIPs field discussing first general aspects in MIP preparation and then dealing with various application aspects. This review aims to outline the molecularly imprinted process and present a summary of principal application fields of molecularly imprinted polymers, focusing on chemical sensing, separation science, drug delivery and catalysis. Some significant aspects about preparation and application of the molecular imprinting polymers with examples taken from the recent literature will be discussed. Theoretical and experimental parameters for MIPs design in terms of the interaction between template and polymer functionalities will be considered and synthesis methods for the improvement of MIP recognition properties will also be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology)
Open AccessReview
Looking to the Future: Biomarkers in the Management of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5895-5907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095895 - 14 Sep 2011
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3435
Abstract
The incidence and mortality of pancreas cancer converge. There has been little advancement in the treatment of pancreas cancer since the acceptance of gemcitabine as the standard therapy. Unfortunately, the efficacy of gemcitabine is dismal. While there is much discussion for the development [...] Read more.
The incidence and mortality of pancreas cancer converge. There has been little advancement in the treatment of pancreas cancer since the acceptance of gemcitabine as the standard therapy. Unfortunately, the efficacy of gemcitabine is dismal. While there is much discussion for the development of biomarkers to help direct therapy in this area, there is little action to move them into clinical practice. Herein, we review potential pancreatic cancer biomarkers and discuss the limitations in their implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
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