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Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review

Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian Albrechts University 24118 Kiel, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(10), 4290-4309;
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 23 September 2009 / Accepted: 27 September 2009 / Published: 30 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa; chocolate; polyphenols; cardiovascular disease; endothelial function cocoa; chocolate; polyphenols; cardiovascular disease; endothelial function
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rimbach, G.; Melchin, M.; Moehring, J.; Wagner, A.E. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 4290-4309.

AMA Style

Rimbach G, Melchin M, Moehring J, Wagner AE. Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(10):4290-4309.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rimbach, Gerald, Mona Melchin, Jennifer Moehring, and Anika E. Wagner 2009. "Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10, no. 10: 4290-4309.

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