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Article

Infrared Nanospectroscopy of Individual Extracellular Microvesicles

1
Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma, Italy
2
International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), I-34136 Trieste, Italy
3
Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste, Italy
4
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Life NanoScience, Viale Regina Elena 291, I-00161 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Academic Editor: Francesco Simone Ruggeri
Molecules 2021, 26(4), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040887
Received: 2 January 2021 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Single-Molecule: From Physics to Biology)
Extracellular vesicles are membrane-delimited structures, involved in several inter-cellular communication processes, both physiological and pathological, since they deliver complex biological cargo. Extracellular vesicles have been identified as possible biomarkers of several pathological diseases; thus, their characterization is fundamental in order to gain a deep understanding of their function and of the related processes. Traditional approaches for the characterization of the molecular content of the vesicles require a large quantity of sample, thereby providing an average molecular profile, while their heterogeneity is typically probed by non-optical microscopies that, however, lack the chemical sensitivity to provide information of the molecular cargo. Here, we perform a study of individual microvesicles, a subclass of extracellular vesicles generated by the outward budding of the plasma membrane, released by two cultures of glial cells under different stimuli, by applying a state-of-the-art infrared nanospectroscopy technique based on the coupling of an atomic force microscope and a pulsed laser, which combines the label-free chemical sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy with the nanometric resolution of atomic force microscopy. By correlating topographic, mechanical and spectroscopic information of individual microvesicles, we identified two main populations in both families of vesicles released by the two cell cultures. Subtle differences in terms of nucleic acid content among the two families of vesicles have been found by performing a fitting procedure of the main nucleic acid vibrational peaks in the 1000–1250 cm−1 frequency range. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; infrared nanoscale spectroscopy; atomic force microscopy extracellular vesicles; infrared nanoscale spectroscopy; atomic force microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Polito, R.; Musto, M.; Temperini, M.E.; Ballerini, L.; Ortolani, M.; Baldassarre, L.; Casalis, L.; Giliberti, V. Infrared Nanospectroscopy of Individual Extracellular Microvesicles. Molecules 2021, 26, 887. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040887

AMA Style

Polito R, Musto M, Temperini ME, Ballerini L, Ortolani M, Baldassarre L, Casalis L, Giliberti V. Infrared Nanospectroscopy of Individual Extracellular Microvesicles. Molecules. 2021; 26(4):887. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040887

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polito, Raffaella, Mattia Musto, Maria E. Temperini, Laura Ballerini, Michele Ortolani, Leonetta Baldassarre, Loredana Casalis, and Valeria Giliberti. 2021. "Infrared Nanospectroscopy of Individual Extracellular Microvesicles" Molecules 26, no. 4: 887. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040887

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