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Article

Antrodia cinnamomea Extraction Waste Supplementation Promotes Thermal Stress Tolerance and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Zebrafish

1
School of Medicine for International Students, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
2
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
3
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
4
Department of Otolaryngology, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
5
Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
6
Department of Nutrition, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
7
Department of Chemical Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Halina Ekiert
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4213; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184213
Received: 18 August 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Natural Products)
Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immunomodulation activities. It is estimated that hundreds of metric tons of AC extraction waste (ACEW) are produced per year in Taiwan. This study aims to assess the feasibility of applying ACEW as feed supplement in the aquaculture industry. ACEW significantly inhibited the growth of microorganisms in the water tank, by around 39.4% reduction on the fifth day with feed supplemented of 10% ACEW. The feed conversion efficiency of zebrafish with 10% ACEW supplementation for 30 days was 1.22-fold compared to that of the control. ACEW dramatically improved the tolerances of zebrafish under the heat and cold stresses. When at water temperature extremes of 38 °C or 11 °C, compared to the 100% mortality rate in the control group, the 10% ACEW diet group still had 91.7% and 83.3% survival rates, respectively. In a caudal fin amputation test, the fin recovery of zebrafish was increased from 68.4% to 93% with 10% ACEW diet after 3-week regeneration. ACEW effectively down-regulated the gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and up-regulated the gene expression of IL-4/13A. Additionally, the supplement of ACEW in the feed can maintain and prevent the fish’s body weight from dropping too much under enteritis. Taken together, ACEW has beneficial potential in aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antrodia cinnamomea; zebrafish; thermal stress tolerance; tissue regeneration ability; anti-inflammation Antrodia cinnamomea; zebrafish; thermal stress tolerance; tissue regeneration ability; anti-inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, C.-C.; Lu, Y.-C.; Wang, C.-C.; Ko, T.-L.; Chen, J.-R.; Wang, W.; Chen, Y.-L.; Wang, Y.-W.; Chang, T.-H.; Hsu, H.-F.; Houng, J.-Y. Antrodia cinnamomea Extraction Waste Supplementation Promotes Thermal Stress Tolerance and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Zebrafish. Molecules 2020, 25, 4213. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184213

AMA Style

Chang C-C, Lu Y-C, Wang C-C, Ko T-L, Chen J-R, Wang W, Chen Y-L, Wang Y-W, Chang T-H, Hsu H-F, Houng J-Y. Antrodia cinnamomea Extraction Waste Supplementation Promotes Thermal Stress Tolerance and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Zebrafish. Molecules. 2020; 25(18):4213. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184213

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Chi-Chang, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Chun Wang, Tsui-Ling Ko, Jung-Ren Chen, Wei Wang, Ya-Ling Chen, Yu-Wen Wang, Tzu-Hsien Chang, Hsia-Fen Hsu, and Jer-Yiing Houng. 2020. "Antrodia cinnamomea Extraction Waste Supplementation Promotes Thermal Stress Tolerance and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Zebrafish" Molecules 25, no. 18: 4213. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184213

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