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Article

An Eco-Friendly Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues in Water, Soil and Egg Yolk Samples

1
Creative Chemistry and Innovation Research Unit, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellent for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Khon Kaen Campus, Khon Kaen 40000, Thailand
3
Materials Chemistry Research Center, Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellent for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gonzalo de Gonzalo and Hiroyuki Kataoka
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2785; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122785
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 11 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 25th Anniversary of Molecules—Recent Advances in Green Chemistry)
A green, simple and sensitive hydrophobic DES-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in various samples. A hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent (DES) was synthesized using decanoic acid as a hydrogen bond donor and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) as a hydrogen bond-acceptor. DESs were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two disperser solvents were substituted with surfactants and acetonitrile, which could afford more effective emulsification and make the extraction relatively greener. The hydrophobic DES extraction phase occurred 10 min after centrifugation, being easy to be collected for analysis. Several parameters were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum condition, the calibration curve of this method was linear in the range of 0.003–1.0-µg·mL−1, with a correlation coefficient (R2) higher than 0.99 and a good repeatability, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5.00%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.001–0.003 µg·mL−1; the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.003–0.009 µg·mL·mL−1. Finally, the presented method was implemented to determine the neonicotinoid insecticide residues in water, soil, egg yolk samples and acceptable recoveries were obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent; two disperser solvents; extraction; neonicotinoid insecticides; HPLC hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent; two disperser solvents; extraction; neonicotinoid insecticides; HPLC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kachangoon, R.; Vichapong, J.; Santaladchaiyakit, Y.; Burakham, R.; Srijaranai, S. An Eco-Friendly Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues in Water, Soil and Egg Yolk Samples. Molecules 2020, 25, 2785. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122785

AMA Style

Kachangoon R, Vichapong J, Santaladchaiyakit Y, Burakham R, Srijaranai S. An Eco-Friendly Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues in Water, Soil and Egg Yolk Samples. Molecules. 2020; 25(12):2785. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122785

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kachangoon, Rawikan; Vichapong, Jitlada; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax. 2020. "An Eco-Friendly Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues in Water, Soil and Egg Yolk Samples" Molecules 25, no. 12: 2785. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122785

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