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Open AccessArticle

Optimal Extraction of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil by Association of Ultrasound and Hydrodistillation and Its Potential as a Biopesticide Against a Major Stored Grains Pest

1
Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-900, Minas Gerais, Brazil
2
Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-900, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Carmen Formisano, Vincenzo De Feo and Filomena Nazzaro
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122781
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
The essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum) has significant biological activity against insect pests and can be extracted through various techniques. This work aimed to optimize and validate the extraction process of the essential oil of O. basilicum submitted to different drying temperatures of the leaves and extracted by the combination of a Clevenger method and ultrasound. The biological activity of the extracted oil under different conditions was evaluated for potential control of Sitophilus zeamais. The extraction method was optimized according to the sonication time by ultrasound (0, 8, 19, 31 and 38 min) and hydrodistillation (20, 30, 45, 60 and 70 min) and drying temperature (20, 30, 45, 60 and 70 °C). The bioactivity of the essential oil was assessed against adults of S. zeamais and the effects of each variable and its interactions on the mortality of the insects were evaluated. The best yield of essential oil was obtained with the longest sonication and hydrodistillation times and the lowest drying temperature of leaves. Higher toxicity of the essential oil against S. zeamais was obtained by the use of ultrasound for its extraction. The identification and the relative percentage of the compounds of the essential oil were performed with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective detector. The performance of the method was assessed by studying selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), precision and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ values for linalool were 2.19 and 6.62 µg mL−1 and for estragole 2.001 and 6.063 µg mL−1, respectively. The coefficients of determination (R2) were >0.99. The average recoveries ranged between 71 and 106%, with coefficient of variation ≤6.4%. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sitophilus zeamais; yield; drying temperature; linalool; estragole; chromatographic analysis Sitophilus zeamais; yield; drying temperature; linalool; estragole; chromatographic analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

da Silva Moura, E.; D’Antonino Faroni, L.R.; Fernandes Heleno, F.; Aparecida Zinato Rodrigues, A.; Figueiredo Prates, L.H.; Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz, M.E. Optimal Extraction of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil by Association of Ultrasound and Hydrodistillation and Its Potential as a Biopesticide Against a Major Stored Grains Pest. Molecules 2020, 25, 2781.

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