Next Article in Journal
Correlation Study of Honey Regarding their Physicochemical Properties and Sugars and Cyclitols Content
Next Article in Special Issue
Antimicrobial Activity of Protein Fraction from Naja ashei Venom against Staphylococcus epidermidis
Previous Article in Journal
IR and NMR Studies of the Status of Al and Acid Sites in Desilicated Zeolite Y
Previous Article in Special Issue
Study on Antibacterial and Quorum-Sensing Inhibition Activities of Cinnamomum camphora Leaf Essential Oil
Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antibacterial Mechanism of Limonene against Listeria monocytogenes

College of Food Sciences & Engineering, Hainan University, 58 People Road, Haikou 570228, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25010033
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Properties of Natural Products)
Limonene is a monoterpenoid compound, which is founded in a lot of plants’ essential oils with good antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, but it has an ambiguous antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes). In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Limonene to L. monocytogenes was studied, and some new sights regarding its antibacterial mechanism were further explored. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified that limonene caused the destruction of the cell integrity and wall structure of L. monocytogenes. The increase in conductivity and the leakage of intracellular biomacromolecules (nucleic acids and proteins) confirmed that limonene had an obvious effect on cell membrane permeability. The results of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescence staining were consistent with the results of the conductivity measurements. This indicated that limonene treatment caused damage to the L. monocytogenes cell membrane. Furthermore, the decrease in ATP content, ATPase (Na+K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase) activity and respiratory chain complex activity indicated that limonene could hinder ATP synthesis by inhibiting the activity of the respiratory complex and ATPase. Finally, differential expression of proteins in the respiratory chain confirmed that limonene affected respiration and energy metabolism by inhibiting the function of the respiratory chain complex. View Full-Text
Keywords: Limonene; antibacterial mechanism; membrane damage; nucleic acid; protein; ATP; ATPase; respiratory complexes Limonene; antibacterial mechanism; membrane damage; nucleic acid; protein; ATP; ATPase; respiratory complexes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Y.; Sun, Z.; Chen, W. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antibacterial Mechanism of Limonene against Listeria monocytogenes. Molecules 2020, 25, 33.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop