A universally applicable method for the prediction of the isobaric heat capacities of the liquid and solid phase of molecules at 298.15 K is presented, derived from their “true” volume. The molecules’ “true” volume in A3
is calculated on the basis of their geometry-optimized structure and the Van-der-Waals radii of their constituting atoms by means of a fast numerical algorithm. Good linear correlations of the “true” volume of a large number of compounds encompassing all classes and sizes with their experimental liquid and solid heat capacities over a large range have been found, although noticeably distorted by intermolecular hydrogen-bond effects. To account for these effects, the total amount of 1303 compounds with known experimental liquid heat capacities has been subdivided into three subsets consisting of 1102 hydroxy-group-free compounds, 164 monoalcohols/monoacids, and 36 polyalcohols/polyacids. The standard deviations for Cp(liq,298) were 20.7 J/mol/K for the OH-free compunds, 22.91 J/mol/K for the monoalcohols/monoacids and 16.03 J/mol/K for the polyols/polyacids. Analogously, 797 compounds with known solid heat capacities have been separated into a subset of 555 OH-free compounds, 123 monoalcohols/monoacids and 119 polyols/polyacids. The standard deviations for Cp(sol,298) were calculated to 23.14 J/mol/K for the first, 21.62 J/mol/K for the second, and 19.75 J/mol/K for the last subset. A discussion of structural and intermolecular effects influencing the heat capacities as well as of some special classes, in particular hydrocarbons, ionic liquids, siloxanes and metallocenes, has been given. In addition, the present method has successfully been extended to enable the prediction of the temperature dependence of the solid and liquid heat capacities in the range between 250 and 350 K.
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