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Open AccessCommunication

Co-Existence of Hypertensive and Anti-Hypertensive Constituents, Synephrine, and Nobiletin in Citrus unshiu Peel

1
College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588, Korea
3
College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1197; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071197
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules and Their Mechanisms of Action)
A single herb can contain multiple constituents with diverse bioactivities. We found that the extract of Citrus unshiu peel (CUP), induced abnormal vasoconstriction responses on the freshly isolated rat aortic rings in vitro. CUP stimulated the vasoconstriction alone, and it suppressed the phenylephrine-stimulated vasoconstriction. We studied the reasons behind this abnormal vasoconstriction pattern. Major constituents of CUP were determined and evaluated for their vaso-activities. Notably, synephrine, a contractile agonist, and nobiletin, newly identified to have anti-contractile activity co-existed in CUP. Synephrine and nobiletin competitively blocked or activated the same contractile targets resulting in contradicting and abnormal vasoconstriction responses. Accordingly, the vasoconstriction pattern varies significantly depending on the relative contents of synephrine and nobiletin in CUP. Interestingly, this response pattern could be observed with another plant extract, Acorus gramineus Sol. Collectively, we demonstrated that active ingredients with contradicting bioactivities could co-exist in a single plant extract, interact and produce abnormal response patterns in bioassay, which would give an important insight into the interpretation of unusual activity patterns induced by plant extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: synephrine; nobiletin; Citrus unshiu; vasoconstriction; hypertension; bioassay synephrine; nobiletin; Citrus unshiu; vasoconstriction; hypertension; bioassay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.-J.; Kim, K.; Jung, Y.-R.; Bian, Y.; Ngo, T.; Bae, O.-N.; Lim, K.-M.; Chung, J.-H. Co-Existence of Hypertensive and Anti-Hypertensive Constituents, Synephrine, and Nobiletin in Citrus unshiu Peel. Molecules 2019, 24, 1197. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071197

AMA Style

Kim J-J, Kim K, Jung Y-R, Bian Y, Ngo T, Bae O-N, Lim K-M, Chung J-H. Co-Existence of Hypertensive and Anti-Hypertensive Constituents, Synephrine, and Nobiletin in Citrus unshiu Peel. Molecules. 2019; 24(7):1197. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071197

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Jung-Joon; Kim, Keunyoung; Jung, Ye-Ryeon; Bian, Yiying; Ngo, Thien; Bae, Ok-Nam; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho. 2019. "Co-Existence of Hypertensive and Anti-Hypertensive Constituents, Synephrine, and Nobiletin in Citrus unshiu Peel" Molecules 24, no. 7: 1197. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071197

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